Research Article
Volume 13 Issue 4 - 2022
Relationship of Somatotypes with Pain Intensity and Threshold Level of Patients with Non-Specific Low-Back Pain
Taofik Oluwasegun Afolabi1*, Aanuoluwapo Deborah Afolabi1, Adesola Ojo Ojoawo2 and Chidozie Amy Ibemere1
1Physiotherapy Department, Faculty of Medical Rehabilitation, University of Medical Sciences, Nigeria
2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Taofik Oluwasegun Afolabi, Physiotherapy Department, Faculty of Medical Rehabilitation, University of Medical Sciences, Nigeria.
Received: February 17, 2022; Published: March 25, 2022




Abstract

Objective: This study assessed the relationship of pain intensity and threshold level with the somatotypes of patients with nonspecific Low-Back pain.

Method: Thirty-five (males: n = 13, females: n = 22) consented participants who were purposively recruited participated in this observational study. The participant were allocated into groups following stratification into somatotypes using Health- Cater somatotyping method. The Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale was used to assess each patient’s pain intensity. Digital pressure was applied to the symptomatic vertebrae according to standard procedure at once and at first contact. Pain threshold level of each participant was assessed using the pain pressure threshold scale during the application of digital pressure. Data were collected and analyzed.

Result: The stratification into somatotypes showed that 43.6% of participants were endomorphs (n = 17), 30.8% were ectomorphs (n = 12) and 25.6% are mesomorphs (n = 10). The mean age of the participants was 44 ± 12.90 years, the mean weight was 67 ± 12.31 kg and the mean BMI was 26 ± 2.80. Within group comparison of the effect of digital pressure on the somatotypes showed that there was no significant differences of pain pressure threshold level (PPT) across the somatotypes (F = 1.71, P = 0.2), but there was significant differences in pain intensity across the somatotypes (F = 3.17, P = 0.05), and post hoc analysis showed ectomorph pain intensity to be higher than other body types. Moreover, there was no significant relationship of the variables to the somatotypes (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that majority of the participants were endomorph. There is no significant difference in pressure pain threshold of the somatotypes, However, ectomorphic group had higher pain intensity level than other somatotype.

 

Keywords: Somatotypes; Pain Intensity; Pain Threshold; Low-Back-Pain

References

  1. Woolf A and Pfleger B. “Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization9 (2003): 646-656.
  2. Edomwonyi EO and Ogbue IA. “Epidemiology of low back pain in a suburban Nigerian tertiary centre”. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Sciences 27 (2017): 20-25.
  3. Manek NJ and MacGregor AJ. “Epidemiology of back disorders: prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis”. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 17 (2005): 134-140.
  4. Hoy D., et al. “The epidemiology of low back pain”. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology6 (2010): 769-781.
  5. Olotu JE and Okon M. “Prevalence of Low Back Pain in a Southern Nigerian”. Population (2020): 2456-2165.
  6. Froud R., et al. “A systematic review and meta-synthesis of the impact of low back pain on people‘s lives”. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 15 (2014): 50.
  7. Omokhodion FO. “Low back pain among rural and urban populations in Southwest Nigeria”. African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 12 (2002): 57-59.
  8. Eyichukwu O and Ogugua PC. “Epidemiology of low back pain in Enugu, Nigeria”. New Jersey Institute of Technology 11 (2012): 1.
  9. Louw QA., et al. “The Prevalence of low back pain in Africa: a systematic review”. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 8 (2007): 105.
  10. Dagenais S., et al. “A systematic review of low back pain cost of illness studies in the United States and internationally”. Spine Journal1 (2008): 8-20.
  11. Lis AM., et al. “Association between sitting and occupational LBP”. European Spine Journal2 (2007): 283-298.
  12. Ramdas J and Jella V. “Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain”. International Journal of Advances in Medicine5 (2018).
  13. Turk DC and Okifuji A. “Psychological factors in chronic pain: evolution and revolution”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology3 (2002): 678-690.
  14. Balthazard P., et al. “Manual Therapy Followed By Specific Active Exercises Versus A Placebo Followed By Specific Active Exercises On The Improvement Of Functional Disability In Patients With Chronic Non Specific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial”. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorder 13 (2012): 162.
  15. Reiso H., et al. “Back to work: predictors of return to work among patients with back disorders certified as sick: a two-year follow-up study”. Spine 28 (2003): 1468-1473.
  16. Low Back Pain. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services Bethesda, Maryland (2020).
  17. Aure OF., et al. “Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial With 1-Year Follow-Up”. Spine6 (2003): 525-532.
  18. Ferreira ML., et al. “Comparison of General Exercise, Motor Control Exercise and Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Trial”. Pain 131 (2007): 31-37.
  19. Chou R and Huffman LH. “Non-pharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: A review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline”. Annals of Internal Medicine 147 (2007): 492-504.
  20. Qaseem A., et al. “Noninvasive treatments for acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians”. Annals of Internal Medicine 166 (2017): 514-530.
  21. Stochkendahl MJ., et al. “National Clinical Guidelines for non-surgical treatment of patients with recent onset low back pain or lumbar radiculopathy”. European Spine Journal 27 (2018): 60-75.
  22. Ford J., et al. “The Evolving Case Supporting Individualised Physiotherapy for Low Back Pain”. Journal of Clinical Medicine9 (2019): 1334.
  23. Almeida M., et al. “Primary care management of non-specific low back pain: key messages from recent clinical guidelines”. Medical Journal of Australia6 (2018): 272-275.
  24. Nwuga VCB. “Case Histories in Manual Treatment of Back Pain”. 2nd Edition, Wasiam Publishers (2007): 199-211.
  25. Delitto A., et al. “Low Back Pain: Clinical Practice Guidelines Linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health from the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association”. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy4 (2012).
  26. Ojoawo AO., et al. “Effect of vertical oscillatory pressure on disability of patients with chronic mechanical low back pain using Roland Morris Disability questionnaire”. Tanzania Journal of Health Research1 (2013).
  27. Nwuga VCB. “Case Histories in Manual Treatment of Back Pain”. 2nd Edition, Wasiam Publishers (2007): 199-211.
  28. Coulter ID., et al. “Manipulation and mobilization for treating chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Spine Journal5 (2018): 866-879.
  29. Gomes B., et al. “Palpation and pressure pain threshold: reliability and validity in patients with temporomandibular disorders”. Cra-nio3 (2014): 202-210.
  30. Mancini F., et al. “Visual Distortion of Body Size Modulates Pain Perception”. Psychological Science3 (2011): 325-330.
  31. Kammers MP., et al. “Cooling the thermal grill illusion through self-touch”. Current Biology 20 (2010): 1819-1822.
  32. Ramachandran VS., et al. “Size reduction using Mirror Visual Feedback (MVF) reduces phantom pain”. Neurocase: The Neural Basis of Cognition 15 (2009): 357-360.
  33. Carter JEL and Heath BI. “Somatotyping. Development and Applications”. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (1990).
  34. Táboas-Pais MI and Rey-Cao A. “Disability in Physical Education Textbooks: An Analysis of Image Content”. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 29 (2012): 310-328.
  35. Carter JEL. “The heath-carter anthropometric somatotype-instruction manual”. San Diego, USA (2002).
  36. Nasution IK., et al. “The correlation of pain intensity and quality of life in chronic LBP patients in Adam Malik general hospital”. Earth and Environmental Science1 (2018).
  37. Shariati M and Zilaei Bouri S. Relationship between Flexibility and Somatotype with Lumbar Lordosis in Young Girls (2019).
  38. Evcik D and Yücel A. “Lumbar lordosis in acute and chronic low back pain patients”. Rheumatology International4 (2003): 163-165.
  39. Torensma B., et al. “Pain Experience and Perception in the Obese Subject Systematic Review (Revised Version)”. Obesity Surgery3 (2016): 631-639.
  40. Cheatham SW., et al. “Concurrent validation of a pressure pain threshold scale for individuals with myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia”. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy1 (2017): 25-35.
  41. Kinser AM., et al. “Reliability and validity of a pressure algometer”. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research1 (2009): 312-314.
  42. Castien RF., et al. “Pressure pain thresholds over the cranio-cervical region in headache: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. The Journal of Headache and Pain 19 (2018): 9.
  43. Harms MC., et al. “Forces Measured During Spinal Manipulative Procedures in two age group”. Rheumatology 38 (1999): 267-274.
  44. Sharma A., et al. “Efficacy of Manual Therapy versus Conventional Physical Therapy in Chronic Low Back Pain Due to Lumbar Spondylosis. A Pilot Study”. Medical Sciences3 (2015): 55-63.
  45. Drywien M., et al. “Influence of the somatotype on intake of energy and nutrients in women”. Anthropological Notebooks3 (2016): 147-157.
  46. Krzykała M., et al. “Morphological asymmetry, sex and dominant somatotype among Polish youth”. PloS one9 (2020): e0238706.
  47. Arnstein P., et al. “Self efficacy as a mediator of the relationship between pain intensity, disability and depression in chronic pain patients”. Pain 80 (1999): 483-491.
  48. Croft PR., et al. “Course and prognosis of back pain in primary care; the epidemiological perspective”. Pain 122 (2006): 1-3.
  49. Naguszewski WK., et al. “Dermatomal somatosensory evoked potential demonstration of nerve root decompression after VAX-D therapy”. Neurological Research7 (2001): 706-714.
  50. Çinarli FS and Kafkas ME. “The effect of somatotype characters on selected physical performance parameters”. Physical Education of Students6 (2019): 279-287.
  51. Egwu MO., et al. “Cortical Electrophysiological change during Vertical Oscillatory Pressure Therapy in patients with Low Back Pain”. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences1 (2012): 1-7.
  52. Afolabi TO., et al. “Comparative Effectiveness of Lumbar Stabilisation Exercises and Vertical Oscillatory Pressure in the Management of Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain”. International Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation06 (2018).
Citation: Taofik Oluwasegun Afolabi., et al. “Relationship of Somatotypes with Pain Intensity and Threshold Level of Patients with Non-Specific Low-Back Pain”. EC Orthopaedics 13.4 (2022): 114-122.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 20, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.