Research Article
Volume 13 Issue 4 - 2022
Causation, Relationship, Association, and Correlation: Narrative Review
Mark E Murdock*
Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida, Port Orange, FL, USA
*Corresponding Author: Mark E Murdock, Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida, Port Orange, FL, USA.
Received: February 13, 2022; Published: March 10, 2022




Abstract

Introduction: In this narrative review, the author explains the terms causation, relationship, association, and correlation. Causation is addressed through Hill’s criterion which includes strength of association. Relationship and association are vague terms. Correlation is explained through definitions, types, examples and incorrect usages. Correlation is important to determine which treatments need to be investigated at a higher level.

Methods: Literature review was based upon convenience sample of materials used to teach the subject and Pubmed search limited to free full text.

Results: Deliverables include explanations and diagrams of Hill’s criterion and types of correlation.

Discussion: Potential problems and solutions are discussed including the improper use of Pearson’s r in diagnostic statistics.

Conclusion: This provides a resource for beginning to understand the complexities of causation and elucidating features of correlation.

 

Keywords: Causation; Relationship; Association; Correlation; Pearson R; Evidence Based Medicine; EBM; EBCP; Education

References

  1. Mirtz TA., et al. “An epidemiological examination of the subluxation construct using Hill’s criteria of causation”. Chiropractic and Osteopathy 17 (2009): 13.
  2. Tuchin P. “Chiropractic and Stroke: Association or Causation?”. International Journal of Clinical Practice 9 (2013): 825-833.
  3. Moye Lemuel A. “Statistical Reasoning in Medicine: The Intuitive P-Value Primer”. 2nd Edition, Springer (2006).
  4. Parascandola M and Weed DL. “Causation in epidemiology”. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 12 (2001): 905-912.
  5. Miles J and Banyard P. “Understanding and Using Statistics in Psychology”. SAGE Publications: Los Angeles (2007).
  6. Field Andy. “Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics?” 4th Edition, Sage, Los Angeles, Book (2013).
  7. Haneline MT. “Evidence-Based Chiropractic Practice”. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston (2007): 136.
  8. Lepp A., et al. “The Relationship Between Cell Phone Use and Academic Performance in a Sample of U.S. College Students”. SAGE Open (2015): 1-9.
  9. “Elementary Statistics”. 8th Edition, Textbook, Pearson: Boston (2001).
  10. Choi M and Murdock ME. “The Effect of Online Formative Self-Assessment on Academic Performance of Chiropractic Students”. World Journal of Educational Research1 (2020): 52.
  11. Collado-Mateo D., et al. “Stair negotiation in women with fibromyalgia”. Medicine 43 (2017): e8364.
  12. Cambron JA., et al. “Shoe Orthotics for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation9 (2017): 1752-1762.
  13. McCoy M., et al. “Intra-Examiner and Inter-Examiner Reproducibility of Paraspinal Thermography”. Plos One2 (2011): e16535.
  14. Biau DJ., et al. “P Value and the Theory of Hypothesis Testing”. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 3 (2010): 885-892.
  15. Haas M. “The Reliability of Reliability”. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 3 (1991): 199-208.
  16. Bland JM and Altman DG. “Applying the right statistics: analyses of measurement studies”. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 1 (2003): 85-93.
  17. Koo TK and Li MY. “A Guideline of Selecting and Reporting Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for Reliability Research”. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine2 (2016): 155-163.
  18. Landers R. “Computing Intraclass Correlations (ICC) as Estimates of Interrater Reliability in SPSS”. The Winnower (2015): 1-4.
  19. Aartun E., et al. “Screening of the spine in adolescents: inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of commonly used clinical tests”. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 15 (2014): 37.
  20. Whiting P., et al. “Development and validation of methods for assessing the quality of diagnostic accuracy studies”. Health Technology Assessment 25 (2004): 1-234.
  21. Allagaert K., et al. “Tympanic, Infrared Skin, and Temporal Artery Scan Thermometers Compared with Rectal Measurement in Children: A Real-Life Assessment”. Current Therapeutic Research 76 (2014): 34-38.
  22. Beckstead JW. “Agreement, reliability, and bias in measurement: Commentary on Bland and Altman (1986; 2020)”. International Journal of Nursing Studies1 (2011): 134-135.
  23. Liu J., et al. “Correlation and agreement: overview and clarification of competing concepts and measures”. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry2 (2016): 115-120.
  24. Ludbrook J. “Statistical techniques for comparing measures and methods of measurement: a critical review”. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology7 (2002): 527-536.
  25. Woodman RJ. “Ordinary Least Products: Let’s welcome back an old friend”. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 39 (2012): 325-326.
  26. Watson PF and Petrie A. “Method agreement analysis: A review of correct methodology”. Theriogenology9 (2010): 1167-1179.
  27. Zaki R., et al. “Statistical Methods Used to Test for Agreement of Medical Instruments Measuring Continuous Variables Method Comparison Studies: A Systematic Review”. Plos One5 (2012): e37908.
  28. Alghadir AH., et al. “Test-retest reliability, validity, and minimum detectable change of visual analog, numerical rating, and verbal rating scales for measurement of osteoarthritic knee pain”. Journal of Pain Research 11 (2018): 851-856.
  29. Cracknell J., et al. “Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the Cobb measurement by chiropractic interns using digital evaluation methods”. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 3 (2015): 261-268.
  30. Ferriera-Valente MA., et al. “Validity of four pain intensity rating scales”. Pain10 (2011): 2399-2404.
  31. Triano JJ., et al. “Review of methods used by chiropractors to determine the site for applying manipulation”. Chiropractic and Manual Therapies1 (2013): 36.
  32. Giavarina D. “Understanding Bland Altman analysis”. Biochemia Medica2 (2015): 141-151.
  33. Griffiths PD and Murrells T. “Reliability assessment and approaches to determining agreement between measurements: Classic methods paper”. International Journal of Nursing Studies8 (2010): 937-938.
  34. Hawk C., et al. “Implementation of a Course on Wellness Concepts into a Chiropractic College Curriculum”. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 6 (2005): 423-428.
  35. Rabin A., et al. “The Sensitivity of the Seated Straight-Leg Raise Test Compared with the Supine Straight-Leg Raise in Patients Presenting with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence of Lumbar Nerve Root Compression”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 7 (2007): 840-843.
  36. Baedke J. “What’s Wrong with Evolutionary Causation?”. Acta Biotheoretica1 (2021): 79-89.
Citation: Mark E Murdock. “Causation, Relationship, Association, and Correlation: Narrative Review”. EC Orthopaedics 13.4 (2022): 01-12.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 20, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.