Case Report
Volume 12 Issue 12 - 2021
Can FDG PET/CT Replace Bone Scan in Detection of Bone Metastasis in Patients of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma?

Hira Waheed* and Syed Jahanzeb

Department of Radiology, Dr. Ziauddin University, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Hira Waheed, Department of Radiology, Dr. Ziauddin University, Pakistan.
Received: September 24, 2021; Published: November 26, 2021




Abstract

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is quite a rare malignancy worldwide. Literature has shown that there is a marked variation in the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in different regions of the world. It has an incidence of 0.5 - 2 per 100,000 in Europe and the United States [1]. However, it is much more common in certain parts of Southeast Asia, North Africa, Middle East and particularly in southern China [2].

Majority of the nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are epithelial in origin and have a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Due to the rich submucosal lymphatic system of nasopharynx, more than 70% of patients have clinically involved lymph nodes at initial diagnosis.

Keywords: Nasopharyngeal Cancer (NPC); Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV); Lymph Nodes

References

  1. J Ferlay., et al. GLOBOCAN 2002: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide IARC Cancer Base, no. 5, version 2.0. Lyon, France, IARC Press (2004).
  2. Beena Umar., et al. “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, an analysis of histological subtypes and their association with EBV, a study of 100 cases of Pakistani population”. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences (2014).
  3. Francesca De Felice., et al. “Solitary rib metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. Chinese Journal of Cancer Research2 (2014): 219-221.
  4. YuMC and Yuan JM. “Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. Seminars in Cancer Biology6 (2002): 421-429.
  5. Mohandas A., et al. “FDG PET/CT in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. American Journal of Roentgenology2 (2014): 146-157.
  6. Orit Kaidar-Person., et al. “Brain metastases of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review”. Case Reports in Medicine (2012): 4.
  7. King AD., et al. “Primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma: diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging versus that of endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy”. Radiology 258 (2011): 531-537.
  8. Feng M., et al. “Tumor volume is an independent prognostic indicator of local control in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy”. Radiation Oncology 8 (2013): 208.
  9. Edge SB., et al. “AJCC cancer staging manual, 7th edition”. New York, NY: Springer (2010).
  10. Chen YK., et al. “Clinical usefulness of fused PET/CT compared with PET alone or CT alone in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients”. Anticancer Research 26 (2006): 1471-1477.
  11. Sham JS., et al. “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of skeletal metastases”. The British Journal of Radiology 63 (1990): 202-205.
  12. Khor TH., et al. “Distant metastases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. Clinical Radiology 29 (1978): 27-30.
  13. Ahmad A and Stefani S. “Distant metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a study of 256 male patients”. Journal of Surgical Oncology 33 (1986): 194-197.
  14. Cao X., et al. “Risk subset of the survival for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with bone metastases: who will benefit from combined treatment?” Oral Oncology 47 (2011): 747-752.
  15. Taira AV., et al. “Detection of bone metastases: assessment of integrated FDG PET/CT imaging”. Radiology1 (2007): 204-211.
  16. Iagaru A., et al. “Prospective evaluation of (99m) Tc MDP scintigraphy, (18)F NaF PET/CT, and (18)F FDG PET/CT for detection of skeletal metastases”. Molecular Imaging and Biology2 (2012): 252-259.
  17. Damle NA., et al. “The role of 18F-fluoride PET-CT in the detection of bone metastases in patients with breast, lung and prostate carcinoma: a comparison with FDG PET/CT and 99mTc-MDP bone scan”. Japanese Journal of Radiology4 (2013): 262-269.
  18. Ozülker T., et al. “Comparison of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT with (99m) Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases in cancer patients”. Nuclear Medicine Communications6 (2010): 597-603.
  19. M Ohta., et al. “Whole body PET for the evaluation of bony metastases in patients with breast cancer: comparison with 99Tcm-MDP bone scintigraphy”. Nuclear Medicine Communications8 (2001): 875-879.
Citation: Hira Waheed and Syed Jahanzeb. “Can FDG PET/CT Replace Bone Scan in Detection of Bone Metastasis in Patients of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma?”. EC Orthopaedics 12.12 (2021): 05-11.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.