Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 10 - 2021
Frequency and Pattern of Upper Limb Musculoskeletal Disorders in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Anahita Masoom1, Kamila Hashemzadeh2, Toktam Ghadam Soltani3 and Sahar Ghareh4*
1General Physician, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
2Rheumatic Diseases Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3Allergy Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4Department of Internal Medicine, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Sahar Ghareh, Department of internal Medicine, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.
Received: August 11, 2021; Published: September 27, 2021


Background and Aim of the Work: Higher prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, especially upper limb musculoskeletal disorders was revealed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency and pattern of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in patients with T2DM.

Methods: This cross-sectional study, examined 80 diabetic patients who were referred to the clinic of endocrinology in 22-Bahman academic hospital and Persian Diabetes Clinic. Furthermore, the demographic characteristics and prevalence of adhesive capsulitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, and Dupuytren`s contracture were investigated.

Results: According to the results, 8 adhesive capsulitis (10%), 3 trigger finger (3.75%), and 6 carpal tunnel syndrome patients (7.6%) were reported in the study population. None of the patients in this study suffered from Dupuytren`s contracture. Analytical tests showed that carpal tunnel syndrome is more common among women (p = 0.007). There was a significant relationship between trigger finger and age and disease duration (p = 0.018, 0.016, respectively). In addition, trigger finger was directly associated with age. The HbA1c level below 7 showed that there was a slightly significant relationship between adhesive capsulitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. There was an inverse relationship between the duration of diabetes mellitus and the incidence of adhesive capsulitis.

Conclusion: The present study provided some evidence for the importance of musculoskeletal complications in diabetic patients. Besides, the female gender was identified as a risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome. It is important to value the importance of these disorders in the prevention and rehabilitation of diabetic patients.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases


  1. Seuring T., et al. “The economic costs of type 2 diabetes: a global systematic review”. Pharmacoeconomics8 (2015): 811-831.
  2. Tuttle KR and Cherney DZ. “Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition Heralds a Call-to-Action for Diabetic Kidney Disease”. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology2 (2020): 285-288.
  3. Wang W., et al. “Type 2 diabetes mellitus in China: a preventable economic burden”. The American Journal of Managed Care9 (2009): 593-601.
  4. Care D. “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus”. Diabetes Care (2006).
  5. Pillai S and Littlejohn G. “Metabolic factors in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis–a review of clinical data”. The Open Rheumatology Journal 8 (2014): 116.
  6. Kidwai SS., et al. “Upper limb musculoskeletal abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients in low socioeconomic strata in Pakistan”. BMC Research Notes1 (2013): 16.
  7. Majjad A., et al. “Musculoskeletal disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study”. International Journal of Rheumatology (2018).
  8. Sözen T., et al. “Musculoskeletal problems in diabetes mellitus”. European Journal of Rheumatology4 (2018): 258.
  9. Arkkila PE and Gautier J-F. “Musculoskeletal disorders in diabetes mellitus: an update”. Best Practice and Research Clinical Rheumatology6 (2003): 945-970.
  10. Ramchurn N., et al. “Upper limb musculoskeletal abnormalities and poor metabolic control in diabetes”. European Journal of Internal Medicine7 (2009): 718-721.
  11. Kermani ZH., et al. “The comparison of frequency of the upper limb musculoskeletal disorders among patients with diabetes type II with normal cases”. Electronic Physician11 (2017): 5848.
  12. Kiani J., et al. “Prevalence and risk factors of five most common upper extremity disorders in diabetics”. Journal of Research in Health Sciences1 (2014): 93-96.
  13. Alkhatatbeh MJ., et al. “Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in association with serum 25‑hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Biomedical Reports6 (2018): 571-577.
  14. Pai L-W., et al. “Musculoskeletal pain in people with and without type 2 diabetes in Taiwan: a population-based, retrospective cohort study”. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders1 (2015): 364.
  15. Zreik NH., et al. “Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder and diabetes: a meta-analysis of prevalence”. Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal1 (2016): 26.
  16. Whelton C and Peach C. “Review of diabetic frozen shoulder”. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology3 (2018): 363-371.
  17. Tighe CB and Oakley JW. “The prevalence of a diabetic condition and adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder”. Southern Medical Journal6 (2008): 591-595.
  18. Cagliero E., et al. “Musculoskeletal disorders of the hand and shoulder in patients with diabetes mellitus”. The American Journal of Medicine6 (2002): 487-490.
  19. Yosipovitch G., et al. “Trigger finger in young patients with insulin dependent diabetes”. The Journal of Rheumatology 7 (1990): 951-952.
  20. Marsano LS., et al. “Clinical features, disease modifiers, and natural history of alcoholic liver disease”. Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Springer (2016): 165-182.
  21. Akulwar AS., et al. “Clinical and electrophysiological evaluation of carpel tunnel syndrome in diabetes mellitus to assess association of age, gender and duration of diabetes on median neuropathy at wrist”. Health3 (2013).
  22. Zamani B., et al. “Frequency of musculoskeletal complications among the diabetic patients referred to Kashan diabetes center during 2009-10”. KAUMS Journal (FEYZ) 3 (2011): 225-231.
  23. Wamisho BL and Feleke Y. “Epidemiology and clinical profile of common musculoskeletal diseases in patients with diabetes mellitus at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia”. East and Central African Journal of Surgery 2 (2017): 49-62.
  24. Singh R., et al. “Lifetime risk of symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome in Type 1 diabetes”. Diabetic Medicine 5 (2005): 625-630.
Citation: Sahar Ghareh., et al. “Frequency and Pattern of Upper Limb Musculoskeletal Disorders in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”. EC Orthopaedics 12.10 (2021): 05-11.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 20, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.