Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 9 - 2021
Seropositivity of HTLV-1 Infection in Inflammatory Arthritis
Zahra Rezaieyazdi1, Maryam Hami3, Nima Zafari2, Mahla Velayati2 and Kamila Hashemzadeh1*
1Rheumatic Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3Kidney Transplantation Complications Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Kamila Hashemzadeh, Rheumatic Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Received: June 07, 2021; Published: August 28, 2021


Background: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus. It is proposed that in endemic regions of the world, autoimmune disorders related with HTLV-1 contamination such as rheumatoid arthritis are more common. The infiltration of T lymphocyte and hyperplasia of synovial lining cells have also been reported in rheumatoid arthritis and seronegative spondyloarthropathies.

Aim: In this study, we evaluated the etiological relationship between HTLV-1 and inflammatory arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SPA) in northeastern Iran as this virus is endemic.

Methods: Anti-HTLV-1 antibody was measured in 204 individuals (81 with RA, 43 with SPA and 80 healthy controls). HTLV-1 antibody was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum. For all positive ELISA samples of HTLV-1 infection, Western Blot was performed to confirm the results. Each anti-HTLV-1 and anti-HTLV-2 positive specimens were measured simultaneously to make sure that the test results are true.

Results: The incidence of HTLV-1 contamination in RA group was 6.2%, in SPA group was 2.3% and in control group was 51%. There was not any statistical difference among RA, SPA patients and controls according to the number of HTLV-1 seropositive samples (P = 005).

Conclusion: In the present study, we did not find any correlation between HTLV-1 infection and inflammatory arthropathy such as RA and SPA, which suggests that differences in ethnicity may subscribe to this subject. Geographical and environmental factors should be also considered.

Keywords: Seropositivity; Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1); Inflammatory Arthritis; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies


  1. Johnson JM and Harrod R. “Molecular biology and pathogenesis of the human T‐cell leukaemia/lymphotropic virus Type‐1 (HTLV‐1)”. International Journal of Experimental Pathology3 (2001): 135-147.
  2. Umekita K and Okayama A. “HTLV-1 infection and rheumatic diseases”. Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020): 152.
  3. Brites C., et al. “HIV/human T-cell lymphotropic virus coinfection revisited: impact on AIDS progression”. AIDS Reviews1 (2009): 8-16.
  4. Cook LB and Taylor GP. “HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 prevalence in the United States”. Oxford University Press (2014).
  5. San-Martin DL., et al. “Pain prevalence, characteristics and associated factors in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infected patients: a systematic review of the literature”. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases6 (2016): 592-598.
  6. Azami M., et al. “Epidemiology of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 among blood donors and general population in Iran: a meta-analysis”. Future Virology08 (2018): 585-599.
  7. Paiva A and Casseb J. “Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the Americas”. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo1 (2015): 01-14.
  8. Rafatpanah H., et al. “High prevalence of HTLV-I infection in Mashhad, Northeast Iran: a population-based seroepidemiology survey”. Journal of Clinical Virology3 (2011): 172-176.
  9. Eguchi K., et al. “High seroprevalence of anti–HTLV‐I antibody in rheumatoid arthritis”. Arthritis and Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology3 (1996): 463-466.
  10. Klein A., et al. “Rheumatoid arthritis and lymphoma: Incidence, pathogenesis, biology, and outcome”. Hematological Oncology5 (2018): 733-739.
  11. Eguchi K., et al. “Primary Sjögren's syndrome with antibodies to HTLV-I: clinical and laboratory features”. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases6 (1992): 769-776.
  12. Caldas CAM., et al. “Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Rheumatic Diseases: A Link Between Infection and Autoimmunity”. Infection and Autoimmunity: Elsevier (2015): 407-417.
  13. Hashimoto A., et al. “Bilateral Wrist Tenosynovitis owing to Acute Conversion of Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis”. Case Reports in Orthopedics (2020).
  14. Nakamura H., et al. “High prevalence of Sjögren’s syndrome in patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy”. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases3 (1997): 167-172.
  15. Gessain A., et al. “Antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type-I in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis”. The Lancet8452 (1985): 407-410.
  16. Schierhout G., et al. “Association between HTLV-1 infection and adverse health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases1 (2020): 133-143.
  17. Scola RH., et al. “Inflammatory myopathy on HTLV-I infection: case report”. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 1 (2001): 119-122.
  18. Dias A., et al. “Human T lymphotropic virus and pulmonary diseases”. Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018): 1879.
  19. Kamoi K. “HTLV-1 in Ophthalmology”. Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020): 388.
  20. Yu H., et al. “Pulmonary complications in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers with Sjögren’s syndrome, three case reports and literature review”. Rheumatology International2 (2009): 253-258.
  21. Souza A., et al. “Immunopathogenesis and neurological manifestations associated to HTLV-1 infection”. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical5 (2012): 545-552.
  22. McCallum RM., et al. “Arthritis syndromes associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I infection”. Medical Clinics1 (1997): 261-276.
  23. Zucker-Franklin D., et al. “Prevalence of HTLV-I Tax in a subset of patients with rheumatoid arthritis”. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology2 (2002): 161-170.
  24. Habu K., et al. “The human T cell leukemia virus type I-tax gene is responsible for the development of both inflammatory polyarthropathy resembling rheumatoid arthritis and noninflammatory ankylotic arthropathy in transgenic mice”. The Journal of Immunology5 (1999): 2956-2963.
  25. Sato K., et al. “Arthritis in patients infected with human T lymphotropic virus type I. Clinical and immunopathologic features”. Arthritis and Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology6 (1991): 714-721.
  26. Yakova M., et al. “Increased proviral load in HTLV-1-infected patients with rheumatoid arthritis or connective tissue disease”. Retrovirology1 (2005): 1-9.
  27. Veale D., et al. “Reduced synovial membrane macrophage numbers, ELAM‐1 expression, and lining layer hyperplasia in psoriatic arthritis as compared with rheumatoid arthritis”. Arthritis and Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology7 (1993): 893-900.
  28. Danning C., et al. “Macrophage‐derived cytokine and nuclear factor κB p65 expression in synovial membrane and skin of patients with psoriatic arthritis”. Arthritis and Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology6 (2000): 1244-1256.
  29. Van Kuijk AW and Tak PP. “Synovitis in psoriatic arthritis: immunohistochemistry, comparisons with rheumatoid arthritis, and effects of therapy”. Current Rheumatology Reports4 (2011): 353-359.
  30. Arnett FC., et al. “The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis”. Arthritis and Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology3 (1988): 315-324.
  31. Dougados M., et al. “The European Spondylarthropathy Study Group preliminary criteria for the classification of spondylarthropathy”. Arthritis and Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology10 (1991): 1218-1227.
  32. Wells G., et al. “Validation of the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and European League Against Rheumatism response criteria based on C-reactive protein against disease progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and comparison with the DAS28 based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate”. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases6 (2009): 954-960.
  33. Zochling J. “Measures of symptoms and disease status in ankylosing spondylitis: Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale (ASQoL), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS‐G), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), Dougados Functional Index (DFI), and Health Assessment Questionnaire for the Spondylarthropathies (HAQ‐S)”. Arthritis Care and Research11 (2011): S47-S58.
  34. Quaresma JA., et al. “HTLV-1, immune response and autoimmunity”. Viruses1 (2016): 5.
  35. Ijichi S., et al. “Arthritis in a human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) carrier”. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases9 (1990): 718-721.
  36. Nishioka K. “Chronic inflammatory arthropathy associated with HTLV-I”. Lancet 1 (1989): 441.
  37. Murphy EL., et al. “Respiratory and urinary tract infections, arthritis, and asthma associated with HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection”. Emerging Infectious Diseases1 (2004): 109.
  38. Sebastian D., et al. “Lack of association of Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and rheumatoid arthritis in an endemic area”. Clinical Rheumatology1 (2003): 30-32.
Citation: Kamila Hashemzadeh., et al. “Seropositivity of HTLV-1 Infection in Inflammatory Arthritis”. EC Orthopaedics 12.9 (2021): 02-07.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.