Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 6 - 2021
Inter-Rater Reliability of Grid Localization Test of Tactile Spatial Localization for the Low Back
Kory Zimney*, Molly Horning, Luke Laycock and Leslie Terwilliger
Department of Physical Therapy, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA
*Corresponding Author: Kory Zimney, Department of Physical Therapy, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA.
Received: May 14, 2021; Published: May 27, 2021




Abstract

Background: Tactile acuity is often altered in various persistent pain conditions. There are limitations to some of the current tactile acuity measures available for clinical use.

Objectives: Develop and test reliability of a novel grid localization test (GLT) for tactile spatial localization. Establish inter-rater reliability along with minimal detectable difference for GLT and compare to more established tactile acuity testing of two-point discrimination.

Design: Cross-sectional, observational study of inter-rater reliability.

Methods: Two different testers measured tactile spatial localization testing for the low back utilizing newly established GLT procedure on healthy individuals. Participants during GLT had to identify which area of the back was touched within a defined grid based on 10 touches. An accuracy score was determined based on correct/incorrect response.

Results: Thirty-six participants (N = 36, female = 27) with an average age of 23.3 (range 22 - 30) were studied. ICC (2, k) for the grid localization test between testers was 0.74. The average score was 78% correct with a minimal detectable difference of 29%. There was no correlation between GLT results and two-point discrimination.

Conclusion: The novel GLT demonstrated fair inter-rater reliability and may be evaluating a different component of tactile acuity compared to two-point discrimination testing.

Keywords: Tactile Acuity; Tactile Spatial Localization Testing; Reliability

References

  1. Catley MJ., et al. “Is tactile acuity altered in people with chronic pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis”. The Journal of Pain10 (2014): 985-1000.
  2. Adamczyk W., et al. “Lumbar tactile acuity in patients with low back pain and healthy controls”. The Clinical Journal of Pain1 (2018): 82-94.
  3. Apkarian AV., et al. “Pain and the brain: specificity and plasticity of the brain in clinical chronic pain”. Pain3 (2011): S49.
  4. Lotze M and Moseley GL. “Role of distorted body image in pain”. Current Rheumatology Reports 6 (2007): 488-496.
  5. Flor H., et al. “Extensive reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in chronic back pain patients”. Neuroscience Letters 224 (1997): 5-8.
  6. Walsh LD., et al. “Proprioceptive signals contribute to the sense of body ownership”. The Journal of Physiology 12 (2011): 3009-3021.
  7. Moseley GL and Flor H. “Targeting Cortical Representations in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Review”. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair6 (2012): 646-652.
  8. Packham TL., et al. “Somatosensory rehabilitation for allodynia in complex regional pain syndrome of the upper limb: A retrospective cohort study”. The Journal of Hand Therapy1 (2018): 10-19.
  9. Moberg E. “Two-point discrimination test. A valuable part of hand surgical rehabilitation, eg in tetraplegia”. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine3 (1990): 127-134.
  10. Nolan MF. “Limits of two-point discrimination ability in the lower limb in young adult men and women”. Physical Therapy9 (1983): 1424-1428.
  11. Harvie DS., et al. “Tactile acuity testing at the neck: A comparison of methods”. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice 32 (2017): 23-30.
  12. Wand BM., et al. “Mislocalization of sensory information in people with chronic low back pain: a preliminary investigation”. The Clinical Journal of Pain8 (2013): 737-743.
  13. Craig JC. “Grating orientation as a measure of tactile spatial acuity”. Somatosensory and Motor Research3 (1999): 197-206.
  14. Santa Maria MP., et al. “Fine tuning the graphesthesia assessment: One stroke versus two”. Applied Neuropsychology2 (1997): 127-129.
  15. Salerto S and Wirth M. “Role Of Tactile Acuity With Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain Patients-Effects of Graphesthesia on Two Point Discrimination (2017).
  16. Wand BM., et al. “Tactile thresholds are preserved yet complex sensory function is impaired over the lumbar spine of chronic non-specific low back pain patients: a preliminary investigation”. Physiotherapy4 (2010): 317-323.
  17. Byl N., et al. “The Byl-Cheney-Boczai sensory discriminator: reliability, validity, and responsiveness for testing stereognosis”. The Journal of Hand Therapy4 (2002): 315-330.
  18. Tong J., et al. “Two-point orientation discrimination versus the traditional two-point test for tactile spatial acuity assessment”. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7 (2013): 579.
  19. Adamczyk W., et al. “The point-to-point test: A new diagnostic tool for measuring lumbar tactile acuity? Inter and intra-examiner reliability study of pain-free subjects”. Manual Therapy 22 (2016): 220-226.
  20. Zimney K., et al. “Comparison of reliability and efficiency of two modified two-point discrimination tests and two-point estimation tactile acuity test”. Physiotherapy: Theory and Practice (2020): 1-10.
  21. Wand BM., et al. “Lumbar tactile acuity is near identical between sides in healthy pain-free participants”. Manual Therapy5 (2014): 504-507.
  22. Catley MJ., et al. “Assessing tactile acuity in rheumatology and musculoskeletal medicine—how reliable are two-point discrimination tests at the neck, hand, back and foot?” Rheumatology8 (2013): 1454-1461.
  23. Portney LG and Watkins MP. “Foundations of clinical research: applications to practice”. Volume 2: Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).
Citation: Kory Zimney., et al. “Inter-Rater Reliability of Grid Localization Test of Tactile Spatial Localization for the Low Back”. EC Orthopaedics 12.6 (2021): 22-27.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 09, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.