Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 5 - 2021
Evidence Based Clinical Practice Course Overview: Narrative Review
Mark E Murdock*
Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida, Port Orange, FL, USA
*Corresponding Author: Mark E Murdock, Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida, Port Orange, FL, USA.
Received: March 29, 2021; Published: April 28, 2021


Introduction: In this narrative review, the author introduced Evidence Based Clinical Practice (EBCP) regarding definitions, basics, origins, benefits, necessity, and barriers. The suggested content of a Chiropractic EBCP course is detailed and modifications to the material are expounded. A proposed method of course outcome derivation is suggested for the curriculum to enhance cohesiveness: topic coverage, planned repetition, shifting overlap between course outcomes, and smooth Bloom’s progression. This will provide a resource for those beginning or overhauling an EBCP course and curriculum.

Methods: Literature review was based on content used in the course and those necessary to provide context. Instructor’s experience was used as evidence for resultant deliverables. This evidence was based upon not only the current structure of the course and position in the curriculum but perceived necessary modifications.

Results: Deliverables included an EBCP course outline with the following content modifications diagramed and explained: balance of evidence, tilted EBCP pyramid by design. Depth levels were delineated by Bloom’s verb and a suggested curriculum sequence of outcomes was proposed.

Discussion: Potential problems were revealed and considered such as: subjectivity of Bloom’s verbs, level of depth within Bloom’s verbs, structural analysis, and quantitative analysis. Future and concurrent study plans included analysis of the design and outcomes.

Conclusion: This overview of an EBCP course could be used as a template for other chiropractic institutions and modified for other professions.


Keywords: Evidence Based Medicine; EBM; EBCP; Curriculum; Education


  1. Stites J. “Foundations of Evidence-Informed Clinical Practice (EICP): a Powerpoint Slide Manuscript” (2017): 33.
  2. Alcantara J and Leach MJ. “Chiropractic Attitudes and Utilization of Evidence-Based Practice: The Use of the EBASE Questionnaire”. Explore 5 (2015): 367-376.
  3. Amorin-Woods LG and Losco BE. “PICO-D Management'; a decision-aid for evidence-based chiropractic education and clinical practice”. Chiropractic and Manual Therapies 24 (2016): 49.
  4. Blanco MA., et al. “A survey study of evidence-based medicine training in US and Canadian medical schools”. Journal of the Medical Library Association 3 (2014): 160-168.
  5. Bolton JE. “The evidence in evidence-based practice: what counts and what doesn't count?” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 5 (2001): 362-366.
  6. Dane DE., et al. “A survey of the perceptions and behaviors of chiropractic interns pertaining to evidence-based principles in clinical decision making”. The Journal of Chiropractic Education 2 (2016): 131-137.
  7. Sackett DL. “Evidence-based medicine”. Seminars in Perinatology 1 (1997): 3-5.
  8. Jamison JR. “Fostering critical thinking skills: a strategy for enhancing evidence based wellness care”. Chiropractic and Osteopathy 13 (2005): 19.
  9. Sackett DL. “Evidence-based medicine and treatment choices”. Lancet9051 (1997): 570.
  10. Fernandez CED PM. “Evidence-Based Health Care in Medical and Chiropractic Education: A Literature Review”. The Journal of Chiropractic Education2 (2004): 103-115.
  11. Glover JID., et al. “EBM Pyramid and EBM Page Generator. Paper Version ed. Dartmouth College, Yale University: Trustees of Darmouth College and Yale University (2006).
  12. Haneline MT. "Evidence-Based Chiropractic Practice". Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers (2007).
  13. Lefebvre R. “ABCD FIX Check list”. In: States UoW, editor (2011).
  14. Lefebvre RP., et al. “Training the evidence-based practitioner: university of Western States document on standards and competencies”. The Journal of Chiropractic Education 1 (2011): 30-37.
  15. Triano JJ. “What constitutes evidence for best practice?” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 9 (2008): 637-643.
  16. Network E. “Enhancing the quality and transparency of health research [Website]”. University of Oxford: UK EQUATOR Centre (2019).
  17. Feise RJ. "Evidence-Based Chiropractic: The Responsibility of Our Profession". Journal of the American Chiropractic Association (2001).
  18. Sackett DL. “Evidence-based medicine and treatment choices”. Lancet9051 (1997): 570.
  19. Bussieres AE., et al. “Evidence-based practice, research utilization, and knowledge translation in chiropractic: a scoping review”. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 16 (2016): 216.
  20. Weber Ii KA and He X. “Chiropractic students and research: assessing the research culture at a north American chiropractic college”. The Journal of Chiropractic Education 1 (2010): 35-45.
  21. Walker BF., et al. “A survey of Australian chiropractors' attitudes and beliefs about evidence-based practice and their use of research literature and clinical practice guidelines”. Chiropractic and Manual Therapies 1 (2013): 44.
  22. Passmore SR., et al. “Chiropractors at McMaster University: The formation and direction of a university-based multidisciplinary chiropractic working group”. The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 1 (2010): 11-13.
  23. “CCE Accreditation Standards”. Principles, Processes and Requirements for Accreditation (2018).
  24. Schneider M., et al. “The effectiveness and feasibility of an online educational program for improving evidence-based practice literacy: an exploratory randomized study of US chiropractors”. Chiropractic and Manual Therapies 24 (2016): 27.
  25. Meats E., et al. “Evidence-based medicine teaching in UK medical schools”. Medical Teacher 4 (2009): 332-337.
  26. Zhang N and Chawla S. “Effect of implementing instructional videos in a physical examination course: an alternative paradigm for chiropractic physical examination teaching”. The Journal of Chiropractic Education 1 (2012): 40-46.
  27. Zhang N and Henderson CN. “Can formative quizzes predict or improve summative exam performance?” The Journal of Chiropractic Education 1 (2015): 16-21.
  28. Zhang N and Henderson CNR. “Requiring students to justify answer changes during collaborative testing may be necessary for improved academic performance”. The Journal of Chiropractic Education2 (2017): 96-101.
  29. Rosenberger K., et al. “Ready for Residency: A Bloomian Analysis of Competency-Based Osteopathic Medical Education”. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 8 (2017): 529-536.
  30. Delaney PM and Fernandez CE. “Toward an evidence-based model for chiropractic education and practice”. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2 (1999): 114-118.
  31. Fernandez CE and Delaney PM. “Applying evidence-based health care to musculoskeletal patients as an educational strategy for chiropractic interns (a one-group pretest-posttest study)”. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 4 (2004): 253-261.
  32. Hill EK. “Evidence-Based Practice in Health Education and Promotion: A Review and Introduction to Resources”. Health Promotion Practice3 (2010): 358.
  33. Triano JJ. “What constitutes evidence for best practice?” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics9 (2008): 637-643.
  34. Bussieres A. “Canadian Chiropractic Guideline Initiative (CCGI) progress and future directions: December 2017”. The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 3 (2017): 186-189.
  35. Bussieres A and Stuber K. “The Clinical Practice Guideline Initiative: A joint collaboration designed to improve the quality of care delivered by doctors of chiropractic”. The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 4 (2013): 279-284.
  36. Allen MJ. “Assessing Academic Programs in Higher Education”. 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (2004): 193.
  37. Haas M. “The reliability of reliability”. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 3 (1991): 199-208.
  38. Nkangienieme KEO. “Clinical Diagnosis as a Dynamic Cognitive Process: Application of Bloom's Taxonomy for Educational Objectives in the Cognitive Domain”. Medical Education Online 1 (1997): 1-6.
  39. Thomas A., et al. “Students' attitudes and perceptions of teaching and assessment of evidence-based practice in an occupational therapy professional Master's curriculum: a mixed methods study”. BMC Medical Education 1 (2017): 64.
  40. Haas M., et al. “Evaluation of the effects of an evidence-based practice curriculum on knowledge, attitudes, and self-assessed skills and behaviors in chiropractic students”. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 9 (2012): 701-709.
  41. Banzai R., et al. “International web survey of chiropractic students about evidence-based practice: a pilot study”. Chiropractic and Manual Therapies 1 (2011): 6.
Citation: Mark E Murdock. “Evidence Based Clinical Practice Course Overview: Narrative Review”. EC Orthopaedics 12.5 (2021): 35-48.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 20, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.