Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 3 - 2021
Support Program to Reduce Anxiety in Grandparents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
María del Sol Fortea Sevilla*, José Juan Castro Sánchez and María Olga Escandell Bermúdez
University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
*Corresponding Author: María del Sol Fortea Sevilla, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
Received: January 03, 2021; Published: February 26, 2021




Abstract

Introduction: The grandparents of children with autism spectrum disorders show a double concern; because his grandson "will not be like the others" and because of the impact of diagnosis in their children, the children's parents. This situation generates anxiety and changes in daily life.

Objective: Anxiety is evaluated before and after attendance at a family school, and the quality of life in grandparents.

Method: The State-Trait Anxiety Questionnaire is administered at the beginning and end of the period - families, and the Family Quality of Life Scale at the end. The school consists of five sessions of two hours each. Anxiety results are analyzed before and after the intervention as well as the quality of life.

Results: There is a decrease in state anxiety after school. The quality of life of participating grandparents is good.

Conclusions: family schools are an effective tool to reduce anxiety. Offer grandparents a place to share experiences and receive real information about disorders of the Autistic spectrum.

 

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder; School of Families; Anxiety; Quality of Life; Family Impact

References

    1. Rodríguez NE. “Un acercamiento a la familia desde una perspectiva sociológica. Contribuciones a las ciencias sociales (en línea) (2012).
    2. Cuidados a las personas mayores en los hogares españoles. El entorno familiar. Madrid: IMS- ERSO (2005).
    3. Foreman KJ., et al. “Forecasting life expectancy, years of life lost, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 250 causes of death: reference and alternative scenarios for 2016–40 for 195 countries and territories”. Lancet10159 (2018): 2052-2090.
    4. OMS (Organización Mundial de la Salud) (2002): Envejecimiento activo: un marco político (en línea) (2019).
    5. Miralles I. “Vejez Productiva. El reconocimiento de las personas mayores como un recurso indispensable en la sociedad”. Revista de Temas Sociales 26 (2010): 1-14.
    6. Badenes N and y López, MT. “Doble dependencia: abuelos que cuidan nietos en España”. Zerbitzuan 49 (2011): 107-125.
    7. Megías I Y and Ballesteros JC. “Abuelos y abuelas… para todo: percepciones en torno a la educación y el cuidado de los nietos”. Madrid: Fundación de Ayuda contra la Drogadicción y Obra Social Caja Madrid (2011).
    8. González J., et al. “Funciones que desempeñan los abuelos”. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology 2.1 (2010): 625-633.
    9. Martínez AL. “Aproximación a los conflictos generados entre los abuelos cuidadores de nietos y los padres en la sociedad actual”. Contribuciones a las Ciencias Sociales (en línea) (2010).
    10. Pereyra M. “Abuelos-nietos, relaciones intergeneracionales, cuando uno de ellos es minusválido”. Infancia y Sociedad 29 (1995): 47-61.
    11. Velasco C., et al. “Los abuelos ante la discapacidad de su nieto”. Familia 53 (2016): 9-24.
    12. Merrick H., et al. “Exploring grandparenthood within the context of grandchild disability: grandparents’ perspectives”. Innovation in Aging1 (2018): 630.
    13. Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría (APA). Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales (5th edition). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing (2013).
    14. Heller T., et al. “Grandparents as supports to mothers of persons with intellectual disability”. Journal of Gerontological Social Work 33 (2000): 23-34.
    15. Margetts JK., et al. “Families in a state of flux: the experience of grandparents in autism spectrum disor- der”. Child: Care, Health and Development5 (2006): 565-574.
    16. Lee M and Gardner JE. “Granparents’ involvement and support in families with children with disabilities”. Educational Gerontology 36 (2010): 467-499.
    17. Wright SD., et al. “Grandparents of grandchildren with autism spectrum disorders (ASD): strengthening relationships through technology activities”. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development 2 (2012): 169-184.
    18. Davison KP., et al. “Who talks? The social psychology of illness support groups”. American Psychologist 55 (2000): 205-217.
    19. Woodbridge S., et al. “Grandparenting a child with a disability: An emotional rollercoaster”. Australasian Journal on Ageing 28 (2009): 37-40.
    20. Hastings R., et al. “Grandparent support for families of children with Down’s syndrome”. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 15 (2002): 97-104.
    21. Katz S and y Kessel L. “Grandparents of children with developmental disabilities: Perceptions, beliefs, and involvement in their care”. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing1 (2002): 113-128.
    22. Trute B. “Grand parents of children with developmental disabilities: Intergenerational support and family well-being”. Families in Society1 (2003): 119-126.
    23. Derguy C., et al. “The Need for an Ecological Approach to Parental Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Combined Role of Individual and Environmental Factors”. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 46 (2016): 1895-1905.
    24. Autism Speaks Inc. Autismo. Una guía para abuelos (en línea) (2013).
    25. Ponce A and Vega B. “Talleres para vuelos. Cómo organizar talleres para abuelos de niños con discapacidad”. Madrid: FEAPS (2007).
    26. Ponce A. “Abuelos y abuelas de nietos con discapacidad”. Un apoyo fundamental para toda la familia (en línea) (2014).
    27. Lozano I and Valero L. “Una revisión sistemática de la eficacia de los programas de entrenamiento a pa- dres”. Revista de Psicología Clínica con Niños y Adolescentes2 (2017): 85-91.
    28. Ayuda R., et al. “Medidas de estrés e impacto familiar en padres de niños con trastornos del espectro autista antes y después de su participación en un programa de formación”. Revista de Neurología1 (2012): S73-S80.
    29. Buela G., et al. “STAI. Cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado-Rasg”. Madrid: TEA Ediciones (2011).
    30. Spielberger CD., et al. “Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist (1970).
    31. Guillén A and Buela G. “Actualización psicométrica y funcionamiento diferencial del ítem en el State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)”. Psicothema 23 (2011): 510-515.
    32. Beach Center on Disability. “Family quality of Life Survey (en línea)” (2003).
    33. Verdugo MA., et al. “Escala de Calidad de Vida Familiar (en línea)” (2009).
Citation: María del Sol Fortea Sevilla., et al. “Support Program to Reduce Anxiety in Grandparents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder”. EC Orthopaedics 12.3 (2021): 30-40.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.