Review Article
Volume 12 Issue 2 - 2021
Association of Vitamin-D and VDR with ACE2 Modulates the Severity in COVID-19
Muralidharan Jothimani1, Mehboobali Pannipara2,3, Abdullah G Al-Sehemi2,3 and Karthikeyan Muthusamy1*
1Pharmacogenomics and CADD Laboratory, Department of Bioinformatics, Science Block, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India
2Research center for Advanced Materials Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Chemistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Karthikeyan Muthusamy, Assistant Professor, Pharmacogenomics and CADD Laboratory, Department of Bioinformatics, Science Block, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India.
Received: December 23, 2020; Published: January 29, 2021


The corona virus disease (COVID-19), lethal to the human population is easily transmitted from one person to another. The major causative agents of novel corona virus (nCoV) are severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus disease-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome corona virus disease (MERS-CoV). Both novel strains are similar in their pathogenesis and at severity, the condition leads to death. In COVID-19, mortality is strongly associated with humans suffering from diabetes cardiovascular disease and hypertension. The COVID-19 with its spike protein mediates with the Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor to enter inside the body. The spike glycoprotein binds to ACE2 may be a potent target for developing new specific drugs, antibiotics, repurposed drugs and vaccines. The balancing between ACE2 and Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) aid to reduce the multi-organs injury occurred by COVID-19 and at another criterion, the misbalancing condition between ACE2 and RAS leads to multi-organ damage. The polymorphism in ACE2 is liable to provide the prognostic effects on COVID-19 regulations. Vitamin-D binds with Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) to regulate the gene expression and affects cell proliferation, differentiation; apoptosis and tumor-genesis. VDR as a supplemental factor reduces the severity of various diseases and acts as a multi-targeted gene for various diseases. Vitamin-D and VDR down-regulates the expression of ACE2 and decreases the risk of COVID-19 infection. Targeting Vitamin-D and VDR against COVID-19 may be a potential therapeutic approach for reducing the severity. VDR activation therapeutically targets and potential for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute lungs injury (ALI) and Acute- lower respiratory infection (ALRI) diseases. This mini-review discusses the role of ACE2 in COVID-19, targeted with Vitamin-D and VDR to reduce the severity of viral pathogenesis. Targeting with Vitamin-D and VDR directly down-regulates the action of ACE2 receptor, thereby developing a drug, vaccine or antibiotics might be a potent option to decreases the risk of COVID-19 infection. By the shreds of evidence acquired, Vitamin-D and VDR may be the potential therapeutic option for targeting COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; ACE2; Vitamin-D; VDR


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