Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 2 - 2021
The Effect of COVID Phases on EBCP Cumulative Exam with Chiropractic Students
Mark E Murdock*
Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida, Port Orange, FL, USA
*Corresponding Author: Mark E Murdock, Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida, Port Orange, FL, USA.
Received: December 19, 2020; Published: January 30, 2021


Introduction: The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if there was a statistical difference in the Evidence Based Clinical Practice (EBCP) grades for the cumulative exam 2 with different teaching and testing methods used during three Covid-19 phases.

Methods: The differences in the phases were as follows (teaching method, voice over powerpoint (VOP) access and testing method): 0 (in-class lecture, no VOP, in-class on paper), 1 (voice over powerpoint and on-line Q&A with professor, VOPs available, on-line exam), 2 (powerpoint review on-line, VOPs available, on-line exam). Author performed retrospective analysis of EBCP cumulative exam grades by Covid-19 phase using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test.

Results: Differences were found between Covid-19 phase with respect to EBCP cumulative exam grades by ANOVA. Phase 1 and 2 were significantly (p = < .0001) lower than Phase 0. Phase 1 and 2 were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.805). Due to questionability of normality of Phase 0 scores as per Shapiro-Wilk test (with Holm method) and heterogeneity of variance (Levene, p = 0.00791), Kruskal-Wallis test was performed and revealed significance difference (p = 4.594e-12). Analysis by estimation (effect size and confidence interval) revealed decreased performance by 29 (95%CI 40-17) to 26 (95%CI 35-17) points out of 200 between phase 1 or 2 respectively versus phase 0. MCID is not established regarding the, at least, 17/200 drop in grades; although, this represents an 8.5% drop at the least.

Discussion: ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis revealed a statistically significant drop in grades when lockdown procedures were implemented. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. Some difficulties performing EBCP cumulative exam online included possibility of cheating and technical glitches. Limitations were as follows: multiple variables, unknown seasonal effects, unknown GPA influences, retrospective design, stress influences and ceiling affect.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated a negative effect on EBCP cumulative exam grades (“the final”) due to COVID-19 restrictions and educational modifications using difference teaching and testing methods for each phase. These conclusions must be balanced with limitations. Further studies should consider limitations of this study and provide a plan to eliminate or capture any main affects or interactions.

Keywords: Evidence Based Medicine; EBM; EBCP; Covid-19; Coronavirus; Assessment; Education; Online


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Citation: Mark E Murdock. “The Effect of COVID Phases on EBCP Cumulative Exam with Chiropractic Students”.EC Orthopaedics 12.2 (2021): 55-61.

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