Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 1 - 2021
Quantification, Tapering and Positional Analysis of Across 9-Weekly Microcycles in a Professional Chinese Super League Soccer Team
Adam L Owen1,2*, Del P Wong3,4, Matt Newton5, Anthony Weldon4 and Nikolaos E Koundourakis6
1Inter-university Laboratory of Human Movement Biology (EA 7424), Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France
2Seattle Sounders Football Club, Seattle, Washington State, USA
3Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China
4Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
5Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU), Liverpool, UK
6Department of Clinical Chemistry-Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Greece
*Corresponding Author: Adam L Owen, Inter-university Laboratory of Human Movement Biology (EA 7424), Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France.
Received: September 12, 2020; Published: December 29, 2020


Quantifying the training content within elite professional soccer and analysis of tapering strategies has gained huge interest in recent times within the literature in order to maximise player performance. The formatting of training load tapering (TLT) appears to differ depending on the management in charge and microcycle coaching philosophy. The primary of this investigation was to analyse 9-weekly microcycles used and quantify the tapering strategy utilised through positional differences within a Chinese Superleague soccer team. Twenty-eight (n = 28) elite male professional soccer players participated within the study (± SD, age: 26.7 ± 3.7 years; body height: 181 ± 6.5 cm; body mass: 72.4 ± 4.6 kg) and bodyfat 9.3 ± 2.14 %. Thirty-six training sessions worth of data were collected for assessment with the data inclusive of 9 x 1-week full-training session microcycles per player, per position. Each player’s motional analysis were tracked using a 10 Hz GPS device (Statsport, Melbourne, Australia) and RPE scale was completed by each player post-each training session. Results for days preceding a match were shown to all be statistically significant for TDC, TDC.min-1, HSR, HSRmin-1, SP, ED, ED.min-1, and RPE (p < 0.05). Furthermore, playing position analysis revealed significant differences between each position across the microcycle structure (p < 0.05), but microcycles were non-significant in any of the models obtained (all p > 0.05), except for week 4 across the 9-weekly phase. To conclude, this investigation has shown how it is possible to maintain a structured tapering microcycle strategy whilst inducing daily physical outputs but without causing significant fluctuations in the weekly TLs. Furthermore, the investigation has also provided a tapering approach that may induce the significant variation of the positional demands, assisting also with the decoding of the individual conditioning needs of the players.

Keywords: Soccer; Training; GPS; Training Load; Microcycle; Tapering Strategy


  1. Owen AL., et al. “Analysis of a training mesocycle and positional quantification in elite European soccer players”. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching5 (2017a): 665-676.
  2. Malone J., et al. “Seasonal training load quantification in elite English Premier League soccer players”. The International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 10 (2015): 489-497.
  3. Owen AL., et al. “Physical and technical comparisons between various-sided games within professional soccer”. International Journal of Sports Medicine04 (2014): 286-292.
  4. Owen AL., et al. “Analysis of positional training loads (ratings of perceived exertion) during various-sided games in European professional soccer players”. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching3 (2016): 374-381.
  5. Martín-García A., et al. “Quantification of a Professional Football Team's External Load Using a Microcycle Structure”. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 12 (2018): 3511-3518.
  6. Oliveira R., et al. “In-season internal and external training load quantification of an elite European soccer team”. PLoS One4 (2019): e0209393.
  7. Gabbett TJ. “The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?” British Journal of Sports Medicine 5 (2016): 273-280.
  8. Scott BR., et al. “A comparison of methods to quantify the in- season training load of professional soccer players”. The International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 2 (2013): 195-202.
  9. Haddad M., et al. “Session-RPE Method for Training Load Monitoring: Validity, Ecological Usefulness, and Influencing Factors”. Frontiers in Neuroscience 11 (2017): 612.
  10. Mujika I., et al. “An Integrated, Multifactorial Approach to Periodization for Optimal Performance in Individual and Team Sports”. The International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 5 (2018): 538-561.
  11. Carling C., et al. “Match-to-match variability in high-speed running activity in a professional soccer team”. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 24 (2016): 2215-2223.
  12. Beato M., et al. “Accuracy of a 10 Hz GPS Unit in Measuring Shuttle Velocity Performed at Different Speeds and Distances (5 - 20 M)”. Journal of Human Kinetics 54 (2016): 15-22.
  13. Owen AL., et al. “The Use of Small-Sided Games as an Aerobic Fitness Assessment Supplement within Elite Level Professional Soccer”. Journal of Human Kinetics (2019).
  14. Malone JJ., et al. “Unpacking the black box: Applications and considerations for using GPS devices in sport”. The International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 12 (2017): S2-S18.
  15. Di Salvo V., et al. “Sprinting analysis of elite soccer players during European Champions League and UEFA Cup matches”. Journal of Sports Sciences14 (2010): 1489-1494.
  16. Dellal A., et al. “Influence of technical instructions on the physiological and physical demands of small-sided soccer games”. European Journal of Sport Science5 (2011): 341-346.
  17. Owen AL., et al. “A contemporary multi-modal mechanical approach to training monitoring in elite professional soccer”. Science and Medicine in Football3 (2017b): 216-221.
  18. Hopkins WG. “Reliability from consecutive pairs of trials [Excel spreadsheet]”. A new view of statistics”. Internet Society for Sport Science (2009).
  19. Batterham AM and Hopkins WG. “Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes”. The International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 1 (2006): 50-57.
  20. Morgans R., et al. “Technical and physical performance over and English championship league season”. The International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 5 (2014): 1032-1042.
  21. Clemente FM., et al. “Dose-Response Relationship Between External Load Variables, Body Composition, and Fitness Variables in Professional Soccer Players”. Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019): 443.
  22. Miloski B., et al. “Monitoring of the internal training load in futsal players over a season”. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria and Desempenho Humano6 (2012): 671-679.
  23. Renfree A., et al. “Application of decision-making theory to the regulation of muscular work rate during self-paced competitive endurance activity”. Sport Medicine 2 (2014): 147-158.
  24. Buchheit M., et al. “Match running performance and fitness in youth soccer”. International Journal of Sports Medicine11 (2010): 818-825.
  25. Carling C., et al. “The role of motion analysis in elite soccer contemporary performance measurement techniques and work rate data”. Sport Medicine 38 (2008): 839-862.
  26. Carling C. “Interpreting physical performance in professional soccer match-play: Should we be more pragmatic in our approach?” Sport Medicine 43 (2013): 655-663.
  27. Di Salvo V., et al. “Validation of Prozone: a new video-based performance analysis system”. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 6 (2006): 108-109.
  28. Los Arcos A., et al. “In-season training periodization of professional soccer players”. Biology of Sport 2 (2017): 149.
  29. Bompa TO and Haff GG. “Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training”. 5th Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics (2009).
  30. Issurin VB. “New horizons for the methodology and physiology of training periodization”. Sport Medicine 3 (2010): 189-206.
  31. Akenhead R., et al. “Examining the External Training Load of an English Premier League Football Team With Special Reference to Acceleration”. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 9 (2016): 2424-2432.
  32. Thorpe RT., et al. “Tracking Morning Fatigue Status Across In-Season Training Weeks in Elite Soccer Players”. The International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 7 (2016): 947-952.
  33. Ramsey JB. “Tests for specification errors in classical linear least squares regression analysis”. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 31 (1969): 350-371.
Citation: Adam L Owen., et al. “Quantification, Tapering and Positional Analysis of Across 9-Weekly Microcycles in a Professional Chinese Super League Soccer Team”. EC Orthopaedics 12.1 (2020): 39-56.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 09, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.