Review Article
Volume 11 Issue 5 - 2020
Eliminating Opioid Dependency by Knowing the APTA (Anatomy, Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Assessment) of Pain
John V Flores1* and Nicholas A Kerna2
1Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
2Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
3SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: March 26, 2020; Published: April 16, 2020


There are many causes for the current opioid epidemic in the United States. Government policies, law enforcement actions, and social support are helping to stem the rising tide of opioid use, dependency, and related deaths. However, due to the multifactorial nature of the crisis, one answer or solution is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. In the urgency to solve the opioid crisis and lessen its financial and social impact, an essential investigation might have been overlooked: what are the fundamental causes of opioid use, dependency, and addiction? Pain and the efforts to relieve pain (by physicians prescribing opioids and patients taking them) are the central cause sparking and stoking the opioid crisis. This paper summarizes the anatomy, pathophysiology, treatment, and assessment of pain. It is held that having an enhanced awareness of these four pillars of pain will lead to more efficacious treatment (with less adverse effects) and social support (with less stigma conjoined), thereby reducing opioid addiction, ending the opioid epidemic. The opioid-free protocol offers a practical and progressive alternative to traditional perisurgical pain management, which will result in fewer patients developing opioid use disorder and succumbing to opioid-related deaths.

Keywords: Addiction; Hyperalgesia; Non-Opioid Pain Treatment; Opioid; Opioid Epidemic; Oxycodone


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Citation: John V Flores and Nicholas A Kerna. “Eliminating Opioid Dependency by Knowing the APTA (Anatomy, Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Assessment) of Pain”. EC Orthopaedics 11.5 (2020): 31–39.

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