Review Article
Volume 11 Issue 2 - 2020
Magnetic Resonance Cartigram Sequencing in the Setting of Autologous Orthopedic Immunobiologics
Austin Yeargan* and Brittany LaRussa
Regenerative Medicine Clinic, Wilmington, North Carolina, USA
*Corresponding Author: Austin Yeargan, Regenerative Medicine Clinic, Wilmington, North Carolina, USA.
Received: December 26, 2019; Published: January 23, 2020


Magnetic resonance Cartigram® T2 wetmap sequencing (General Electric®, Chicago, IL) has the capability to diagnose appendicular degenerative joint disease with greater sensitivity and specificity than any other imaging modality. This diagnostic advantage has become particularly advantageous with the advancement of autologous orthopedic immunobiologics (AOI) in the orthopedic surgery over the last decade. No studies have been published where diffusion weighted sequences have been used in the setting of autologous biologic therapeutics. T2 wetmapping studies may perfectly compliment the screening process in orthopedic and neurosurgical patients who could be candidates for signaling cell procedures. 

The imaging sequences are enabled by the natural metabolic consequences of the degenerative processes that occur during the biological life of human connective tissues. Proteoglycan is the major shock absorbing protein in joint cartilage and the spinal disks and has been likened to a sponge retaining water. The T2 wetmap sequences provide additional information concerning degenerative neurologic disease, metabolic musculoskeletal disease and degenerative orthopedic disease. Each of these can be identified earliest with T2 wetmap sequencing when combined with routine MR sequencing. In the setting of central nervous system disease, Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequences provide similar advantages to routine MR imaging and costs are negligible compared to the clinical advantage to the patient. Wetmap imaging has the power to define disease earliest when conservative measures are most likely to stop the advancement of the pathological process and even reverse it. Arthritis is a mechanically induced disease with sinister molecular consequences that are best visualized with wetmap sequencing. We review our clinical algorithm for management of patients with osteoarthritis who seek signaling cell-based treatments. 

Keywords: MR Sequencing; Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC); Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI); Orthopedic Immunobiologics


  1. G Livshits and A Kalinkovich. “Hierarchical, imbalanced pro-inflammatory cytokine networks govern the pathogenesis of chronic arthropathies”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 26.1 (2018): 7-17. 
  2. MEPS Topics: Health Care Costs/Expenditures.
  3. DJ Gaskin and P Richard. “Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education and Research”. The economic costs of pain in the United States. 
  4. Ramappa A., et al. “MRI of microfractured chondral defects”. Journal of Knee Surgery 20 (2007): 228-234.
  5. F Su., et al. “Cartilage Morpholog and T1rho and T2 Quantificaiton in ACL Reconstructed Knees: A two year follow up”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 21.8 (2013): 1058-1067. 
  6. CR Chu., et al. “Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging UTE-T2* Mapping of Cartilage and Menisucs Healing after Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction”. American Journal of Sports Medicine 42.8 (2014): 1847-1856. 
  7. HJ Yu., et al. “In Vivo Quantification of Lumbar Disk Degeneration: Assessment of ADC Value Using a Degenerative System Based on Pfirrmann Framework”. European Spine Journal 24.11 (2015): 2442-2448.
  8. Gunnar Andersson. “New Imaging Technique to Improv Assessment of Surgical Patients with Lumbar Degeneration”. Spinal News International 17.45 (2017): 1-2.
  9. R Kijowski., et al. “T2 Mapping Sequence for Detecting Cartilage Lesion within the Knee Joint at 3.0T: Diagnostic Performance in 114 Patients with Surgical Correlation”. Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 20 (2012).
  10. TJ Mosher and BJ Dardzinski. “Cartilage MRI T2 Relaxation Time Mapping: Overview and Applications”. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology 8.4 (2004): 355-368. 
  11. J Pan., et al. “Knee Cartilage T2 Characteristics and Evolution in Relation to Morphologic Abnormalities Detected at 3T MR Imaging”. Radiology 261.2 (2011): 507-515.
  12. TJ Mosher., et al. “Functional Cartilage MR T2 Mapping: Evaluating the effect of age and training on knee cartilage response to running”. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 18.3 (2010): 358-364. 
  13. Frisbie DD., et al. “Arthroscopic subchondral bone plate microfracture technique augments healing of large osteochondral defects in the radial carpal bone and medial femoral condyle of horses”. Veterinary Surgery 28 (1999): 242-255.
  14. Frisbie DD., et al. “Effects of calcified cartilage on healing of chondral defects treated with microfracture in horses”. American Journal of Sports Medicine 34 (2006): 18-24.
  15. WJ Shi., et al. “Biologic Injections for Osteoarthritis and Articular Cartilage Damage: Can we modify disease?”. The Physician and Sports Medicine 45.3 (2017): 203-223. 
  16. P Fernandez-Pemas., et al. “CD105+ Mesenchymal Stem Cells Migrate into Osteorthrtic Joint in the Amimal Model”. Plos One 12.11 (2017): 00188072.
  17. SM Richardson., et al. “Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine: Focus on Articular Cartilage and Intervertebral Disk Regeneration”. Methods 99 (2016): 69-80. 
  18. CA Sutton., et al. “The Wnt5a Receptor, Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor 2, Is a Predictive Cell Surface Marker of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, with an Enhanced Capacity for Chondrogenic Differentiation”. Stem Cells 35.1 (2017): 2280-2291.
  19. CJ Xian and BK Foster. “Repair of Injured Articular and Growth Plate Cartilage Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chondrogenic Gene Therapy”. Current Stem Cell Research Therapy 1.2 (2006): 213-229.
  20. A Caplan. “Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Time to Chang the Name!”. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 6.6 (2017): 1445-1451. 
  21. Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb.
  22. M Yubo., et al. “Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation for Osteoarthritis Treatment: A meta-analysis”. Plos One 12.4 (2017): e0175449.
  23. YS Kim., et al. “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Implantation in Osteoarthritic Knees: Is fibrin glue effective as a scaffold?.” American Journal of Sports Medicine 43.1 (2015): 176-185. 
  24. A Goldberg., et al. “The Use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage Repair and Regeneration: A systematic review”. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 9.12 (2017): 39. 
  25. SA Shapiro., et al. “A Prospective, Single-Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate for Knee Osteoarthritis”. American Journal of Sports Medicine 45.1 (2017): 82-90. 
  26. E Kon., et al. “Clinical Outcomes of Knee Osteoarthrtitis Treated with Autologous Protein Injection: A 1-Year Pilot Double Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial”. American Journal of Sports Medicine 46.1 (2018): 171-80. 
  27. FP Luyten., et al. “Contemporary concepts of inflammation, damage and repair in rheumatic diseases. Best Practices”. Research Clinical Rheumatology 20 (2006): 829-848. 
  28. S Bajada., et al. “Updates on Stem Cells and Their Applications in Regenerative Medicine”. Topics in Tissue Engineering 2.4 (2008): 169-83. 
  29.   E Belykh., et al. “Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Maps in the Assessment of Surgical Patients with Lumbar Spine Degeneration”. Plos One 12.8 (2017).
  30. EC Argentieri., et al. “Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Articular Cartilage within the Knee”. Journal of Knee Surgery (2018).
  31. E Pelechas., et al. “ABP 501 for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis”. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy (2018):  
  32. T Turajane., et al. “Avoidance of Total Knee Arthroplasty in Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee with Intra-articular Implantation of Autologous Activated Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Hyaluronic Acid: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Differential Effects of Growth Factor Addition”. Stem Cells International (2017): 8925132. 
Citation: Austin Yeargan and Brittany LaRussa. “Magnetic Resonance Cartigram Sequencing in the Setting of Autologous Orthopedic Immunobiologics”. EC Orthopaedics 11.2 (2020): 01-10.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for August Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the August issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 21, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to