Volume 9 Issue 8 - 2018
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Sports
Daniel Ferreira Moreira Lobato*
Applied Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Brazil
*Corresponding Author: Daniel Ferreira Moreira Lobato, Applied Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG, Brazil.
Received: June 27, 2018; Published: July 05, 2018
Citation: Daniel Ferreira Moreira Lobato. “Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Sports”. EC Orthopaedics 9.8 (2018): 520-523.
Sports are a common cause of injuries reaching about 30% of overall injuries in many countries [1,2]. It is believed that about 60% of these lesions involves the lower extremity joints [3]. These data lead many authors to consider sports injuries as a public health problem. In this sense, sports injuries should be extensively studied, from an epidemiological point of view, in order to recognize the risk factors involved. This is extremely relevant for help the clinician to elaborate prevention strategies against these lesions [4].
One of the most common lesions of the lower extremity is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Although the incidence of ACL injury is unknown [5], it is estimated that 350,000 ACL reconstructions (ACLRs) are performed annually in the USA. Despite surgical repair, approximately 79% of those individuals develop knee osteoarthritis (OA) and 20% suffer reinjury within 2 years [6]. Besides, athletes who suffer a knee injury prior to participation in a professional career have an eightfold increased risk of suffering another knee injury during their professional career [7] and one in four youths who suffer an ACL injury will suffer a second ACL injury again in their athletic career [8]. Thus, ACL lesions need to be better elucidated in order to reduce the immediate and delayed impacts on the athlete’s health and on the health systems around the world.
The “ACL injury enigma” [9] stated that we can’t prevent what we don’t understand. In fact, we known that women have a four to sixfold increased risk of ACL injuries [10,11] and that there are anatomical [12,13], biomechanical/neuromuscular [13,14] and hormonal [15,16] factors which account for this greater female predisposition to ACL injuries. Considering that the last two categories are the only ones liable to conservative intervention [17], the focus of the studies has been on biomechanical/neuromuscular and hormonal factors [16,18].
An increased knee valgus angle during landing is one of the main causative factors for ACL injuries [16]. Dynamic knee valgus, described as a combination of hip adduction, hip internal rotation, and knee abduction is recognized as a common lower extremity alignment seen in non-contact ACL injury situations [11,13,18]. These studies suggested the importance of knee injury prevention for athletes who land with a greater dynamic knee valgus [13,19,20].
Copyright: © 2018 Daniel Ferreira Moreira Lobato. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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