Review Article
Volume 13 Issue 6 - 2022
Pathogenesis of Elevated Intraocular Pressure and Glaucoma-Related Retinal and Optic Nerve Degeneration: Diverse Mitigation Strategies and Treatment Modalities
Najam A Sharif1-8*
1Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College of Science and Technology, St. Mary’s Campus, London (UK)
2Singapore Eye Research Institute (SERI), Singapore
3SingHealth, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore
4Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, Fort Worth, Texas (USA)
5Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska USA)
6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas (USA)
7Global Alliances and External Research, Ophthalmology Innovation Center, Santen Inc., Emeryville, CA (USA)
8University College London, Institute of Ophthalmology, London (UK)
*Corresponding Author: Najam A Sharif, Ophthalmology Innovation Center, Santen Inc USA, 6401 Hollis St. (Suite 125), Emeryville, CA 94608 (USA).
Received: April 26, 2022; Published: May 31, 2022




Abstract

Millions of patients bear witness to the devasting effects of the progressive atrophic loss of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons within the optic nerve and the subsequent death of RGCs that eventually robs them of their sight due to ocular hypertension (OHT)/ glaucoma. Although a slowly progressing disease, this glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) often results from undiagnosed and untreated chronically elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) or OHT. Since many glaucoma patients without OHT also experience visual impairment and eventual blindness, it is now accepted that many pathogenic mechanisms and factors at the front and back of the eye conspire to cause GON. This review addresses such elements of neuroinflammation, aberrant immune responses, oxidative stress, neuronal and nerve terminal retraction and pruning, and RGC apoptosis. Furthermore, it describes means to help overcome the deleterious events connected with OHT and GON ranging from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, electroceutical, gene-therapy, photoelectric dye and device utilization perspectives.

Keywords: Glaucoma; Ocular Hypertension; Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy; Drugs; Devices; Therapeutics

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Citation: Najam A Sharif. “Pathogenesis of Elevated Intraocular Pressure and Glaucoma-Related Retinal and Optic Nerve Degeneration: Diverse Mitigation Strategies and Treatment Modalities”. EC Ophthalmology 13.6 (2022): 43-67.

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