Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 9 - 2021
Prevalence of Active Trachoma among Primary School Children in Yigalem Town, Ethiopia
Merkineh Markos Lorato1*, Bekalu Getahun2, Efa Derecha Morka2 and Mikias Mered Tilahun3
1School of Public Health, College of Health Science, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia
2Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Science, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
3Department of Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Merkineh Markos Lorato, School of Public Health, College of Health Science, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia.
Received: July 30, 2021; Published: August 30, 2021


Introduction: Trachoma is chronic infectious eye disease for which Chlamydia trachomitis has been the cause. It was estimated that trachoma is responsible for 3% of all blindness globally. If left untreated it leads to vision loss. Trachoma is the second leading cause of blindness in Ethiopia. But, the magnitude of active trachoma was not well determined in the current study area. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of active trachoma among primary school children in Yirgalem town, Ethiopia.

Materials and Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 primary school children using a multistage systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire followed by ocular examination using binocular 2.5x magnifying loupe to differentiate active trachoma based on World Health Organization’s simplified classification scheme. Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical review committee of College of Medicine and Health Science, Hawassa University. All statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 20.

Results: A total of 600 primary school children were included in this study with 100% response-rate. The mean age of the participants was 11.5 (± 1.267) years. Of them, 325 (54.2%) were females. The majority of participants were protestant Christians 264 (44%) followed by Orthodox Christians 210 (35%). In this study, the overall prevalence of active trachoma among primary school children was 12% (95% CI: 10.7%, 14.2%).

Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of active trachoma among primary school children in Yirgalem town was higher than the World Health Organization criteria for elimination of trachoma and it is still a public health problem among primary school children. So, an appropriate intervention plans for regular screening of active trachoma among primary school children for early detection and treatment is recommended.

Keywords: School Children; Active Trachoma; Prevalence; Ethiopia


  1. Bourne RR SG., et al. “Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis”. The Lancet Global Health 6 (2013): e339-e349.
  2. Alemayehu M., et al. “Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Its Associated Factors among Rural and Urban Children in Dera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study”. BioMed Research International (2015): 570898.
  3. Thylefors B DC., et al. “A simple system for the assessment of trachoma and its complications”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 4 (1987): 477.
  4. Pascolini D MS. “Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010”. British Journal of Ophthalmology 5 (2012): 614-618.
  5. Mariotti SP., et al. “Trachoma: global magnitude of a preventable cause of blindness”. British Journal of Ophthalmology 5 (2009): 563-568.
  6. WHO Alliance for the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (2007).
  7. Berhane Y., et al. “Prevalence of Trachoma in Ethiopia”. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development3 (2007): 211-215.
  8. Wang LH., et al. “Prevalence of trachoma in rural primary school children in Tengzhou City of Shandong Province in China”. Zhonghua yan ke za zhi Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology5 (2010): 395-399.
  9. Solomon AW. “Trachoma control: A guide for programme managers World Health Organization (2006).
  10. Report of the 18th meeting of the WHO Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020 (2015): 1-48.
  11. Yirgalem town administration Bureau (2017).
  12. Yirgalem town Education bureau (2017).
  13. Wosen A BF and Ayanos T. “Prevalence of trachoma and associated risk factors among Yello elementary school students Loma Woreda, Dawro Zone, Ethiopia”. Journal of Nursing and Care (2015).
  14. Gedefaw M., et al. “Current state of active trachoma among elementary school students in the context of ambitious national growth plan: The case of Ethiopia”. Health 5 (2013): 1768-1773.
  15. Eliminating Trachoma Accelerating Towards. WHO Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma by (2020).
  16. Bishara S and Yanko L. “Prevalence of trachoma among children in East Jerusalem in 1980”. British Journal of Ophthalmology 66 (1982): 580-582.
  17. Assefa N., et al. “Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among primary school children in Harari region, eastern Ethiopia”. Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal 3 (2017): 1-10.
  18. Shaffi M and Bejiga A. “Common eye diseases in children of rural community in Goro district, Central Ethiopia”. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 27 (2005): 19.
  19. Lemma E. “Prevalence and Risk Factors of Trachoma among Children of Woreillu Woreda, South W0110 Administrative Zone”. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 1 (2001): 27-36.
Citation: Merkineh Markos Lorato., et al. “Prevalence of Active Trachoma among Primary School Children in Yigalem Town, Ethiopia”. EC Ophthalmology 12.9 (2021): 23-29.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

February Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the February issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 23, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.