Review Article
Volume 12 Issue 2 - 2021
5G: Probable and Possible Adverse Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on Humans
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, Uzoamaka Nwokorie3, John V Flores4,5, Hilary M Holets4,5, Lawrence U Akabike6, Mark H Chen7, Emmaneulla Olubumni Solomon8, Kevin D Pruitt9 and Shain Waugh10
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3University of Washington, USA
4Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
5Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
6Larrico Enterprises, LLC, USA
7For Your Health, LLC, USA
8Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
9Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
10Fettle Path, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: December 28, 2020; Published: January 30, 2021


5G communication elicits radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, which will compound those being emitted by 2G, 3G and 4G, proving potentially harmful to humans and the environment. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields stimulate and conduce cancers in humans. Also, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields pose risks to the eyes, skin, reproductive and neurologic systems, gene expression, energy metabolism and protein synthesis (metabolic effects), cell membranes, and superficial tissues. They also cause nonspecific symptoms (such as headaches, insomnia, dizziness, nausea, lack of concentration, heart palpitations, depression, and sleep disturbances). Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields contribute to oxidative stress, increasing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage to DNA bases. The radiation attacks the superficial layers of the skin. Recognizing the potential dangers and presumed adverse effects of 5G radiation, the World Health Organization recommends exposure limits and drafting policies for reducing risk levels in the exposed population. Governments, militaries, and industries have been supporting rapid 5G implementation without, however, determining its safety and establishing preventive measures. This research explores recent peer-reviewed studies on the biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on humans.

Keywords: Cancer; Gene Expression; Free Radicals; Oxidative Stress; Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields; Wireless Communication


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Citation: Kerna NA, Nwokorie U, Flores JV, Holets HM, Akabike LU, Chen MH, Solomon EO, Pruitt KD, Waugh S. “5G: Probable and Possible Adverse Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on Humans”. EC Ophthalmology 12.2 (2021): 77-85.

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