Research Article
Volume 11 Issue 11 - 2020
Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Spanish Tertiary Hospital
Ayla Basasoro1, Maitane Ibarguren2, Laura Cortazar Galarza1, Sergio Perez-Torres1, Cristina Irigoyen1,3,4*
1Department of Ophthalmology, Donostia University Hospital, San Sebastian, Spain
2School of Medicine, University of the Basque country UPV-EHU, San Sebastian, Spain
3Department of Ophthalmology, University of the Basque country UPV-EHU, San Sebastian, Spain
4Division of Neurosciences, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, San Sebastián, Spain
*Corresponding Author: Cristina Irigoyen, Department of Ophthalmology, Donostia University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of the Basque country UPV-EHU and Department of Ophthalmology, University of the Basque country UPV-EHU and Division of Neurosciences, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, San Sebastián, Spain.
Received: September 01, 2020; Published: October 31, 2020




Abstract

Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasculoproliferative retinal disorder that affects mainly preterm infants. It is one of the main causes of blindness in infants being the cause of 15% of the blindness in children in developed countries. The purpose of the present study is to determine the incidence and risk factors of ROP in a Spanish tertiary hospital.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of newborn infants with ≤ 1500g birth weight (BW) was conducted from January 2014 to June 2019. ROP exam results and risk factors were recorded. Descriptive and correlational statistics were performed.

Results: 223 neonates were evaluated. Mean BW ± standard deviation (SD) was 1144.89 ± 262.46g and mean gestational age (GA) ± SD was 29.2 ± 3.2 weeks. The incidence of any stage of ROP was 11.2% and 3.1% of the screened newborns required treatment. All the infants treated were ≤ 28 weeks GA. The incidences of ROP in the newborns with ≤ 28 weeks GA, BW ≤ 750g and BW 751 - 1000g were 27.4%, 45.5% and 24.4% respectively and, only 3.3% of the patients with GA > 28 weeks and 2.6% of those with BW > 1000g developed ROP. The main risk factors were GA, BW, oxygen-therapy, invasive mechanical ventilation use, sepsis, transfusion, length of stay and absence of multiple pregnancy but the logistic regression analysis only indicated the BW as independent risk factor with an odds ratio of 8.4 in newborns weighing ≤ 750g and an odds ratio of 5.4 in newborns weighing 751 - 1000g.

Conclusion: The results show that the incidence of ROP in our region is relatively low. However, the incidence is high in newborns with GA ≤ 28 weeks and BW ≤ 1000g and the screening should be specially careful in those cases. The BW was the only independent risk factor for developing ROP in our hospital.

Keywords: Retinopathy of Prematurity; Birth Weight; Gestational Age; Risk Factors; Incidence

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Citation: Cristina Irigoyen., et al. “Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Spanish Tertiary Hospital”. EC Ophthalmology 11.11 (2020): 28-39.

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