Research Article
Volume 11 Issue 10 - 2020
The Significance of Eye Dominance and Unilateral Fogging of Vision on Sporting Performance
Geraint William Griffiths*
Chair of the Association of Sport and Schoolvision Practitioners (ASvP), Author of the Diplomas in Sport and Schoolvision Practice, Managing Director of SVUK Ltd., Sports Vision Expert to the British Standards Institute (BSI), General Practice at Optical3 in Leicester, UK
*Corresponding Author: Geraint William Griffiths, Chair of the Association of Sport and Schoolvision Practitioners (ASvP), Author of the Diplomas in Sport and Schoolvision Practice, Managing Director of SVUK Ltd., Sports Vision Expert to the British Standards Institute (BSI), General Practice at Optical3 in Leicester, UK.
Received: August 30, 2020; Published: September 30, 2020


Background: Research has shown that the incidence of eye-hand dominance varies from one sport to another and that a particular configuration may predispose athletes to that sport. This paper aims to show that blurring or fogging of the dominant eye, can provide a protocol to scientifically prove the dependency of sporting performance (and by implication all other occupations) on vision. Two sports were compared Clay Target Shooting and Tennis.

Objective: To show that there is a measurable link between unilateral fogging of vision to 6/15 (equivalent to uncorrected myopia of -1.00 or astigmatism of -2.00) sporting (occupational) performance.

Apparatus: A launcher was used to deliver the clays to a point about 30 metres distant from the shooters. An archery target was used for the tennis players to aim at, the balls were delivered on the volley by a “Lobster” machine. Afocal sports goggles were used to carry out the sporting task in three different conditions, no fogging, right eye fogged and left eye fogged.

Method: The clay shooters took 10 shots in 3 conditions.The shooters scored one for a hit and zero for a miss.

The tennis players hit the balls delivered from the end of the court at an archery target 3 metres to their left, in the same sequence of conditions. They scored 3 points for hitting the gold or the blue, 2 for the red or black, 1 for the white and 0 for a complete miss.

All but one of the subjects had 6/6 (0.0 LogMAR) vision or better in both eyes., Ttheir eye, hand and foot dominance was recorded.


Clay target shooters: When the group was divided into shooters who were right eye dominant, right handed and right footed (Type I) and those with any left tendency (Type II), the Type I shooters showed a significant worsening of performance with their dominant eye fogged compared to no fogging (p = 0.0057, N = 7).

Tennis players: The players showed a significant worsening of performance with their non-dominant eye fogged compared to no fogging (p = 0.0047, N = 12). When the Tennis players were divided into Type I and II, Type I showed a significant effect when their non-dominant eye was blurred (p = 0.0053, N = 7).

A two-tailed T test with equal variance was used throughout.

Conclusion: The results show that monocular fogging of vision equivalent to low levels of uncorrected myopia or astigmatism significantly affects performance in sport.

Keywords: Eye Dominance; Non-Dominant Eye; Dominant Eye; Type I Dominance; Type II Dominance; Tennis; Clay Target Shooting; Monocular Fogging; Eye Hand Dominance; Sporting Performance; Left Tendency; Bangerter Foil; Sports Goggles; Myopia; Astigmatism; Binocular Vision; Binocular Deficiency; Peripheral Awareness; Visual Performance; Dispensing; Optometry; Visual Profile; Angular Subtense, Visual Task Analysis


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Citation: Geraint William Griffiths. “The Significance of Eye Dominance and Unilateral Fogging of Vision on Sporting Performance”. EC Ophthalmology 11.10 (2020): 37-52.

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