Research Article
Volume 11 Issue 10 - 2020
The Significance of Eye Dominance and Unilateral Fogging of Vision on Sporting Performance
Geraint William Griffiths*
Chair of the Association of Sport and Schoolvision Practitioners (ASvP), Author of the Diplomas in Sport and Schoolvision Practice, Managing Director of SVUK Ltd., Sports Vision Expert to the British Standards Institute (BSI), General Practice at Optical3 in Leicester, UK
*Corresponding Author: Geraint William Griffiths, Chair of the Association of Sport and Schoolvision Practitioners (ASvP), Author of the Diplomas in Sport and Schoolvision Practice, Managing Director of SVUK Ltd., Sports Vision Expert to the British Standards Institute (BSI), General Practice at Optical3 in Leicester, UK.
Received: August 30, 2020; Published: September 30, 2020




Abstract

Background: Research has shown that the incidence of eye-hand dominance varies from one sport to another and that a particular configuration may predispose athletes to that sport. This paper aims to show that blurring or fogging of the dominant eye, can provide a protocol to scientifically prove the dependency of sporting performance (and by implication all other occupations) on vision. Two sports were compared Clay Target Shooting and Tennis.

Objective: To show that there is a measurable link between unilateral fogging of vision to 6/15 (equivalent to uncorrected myopia of -1.00 or astigmatism of -2.00) sporting (occupational) performance.

Apparatus: A launcher was used to deliver the clays to a point about 30 metres distant from the shooters. An archery target was used for the tennis players to aim at, the balls were delivered on the volley by a “Lobster” machine. Afocal sports goggles were used to carry out the sporting task in three different conditions, no fogging, right eye fogged and left eye fogged.

Method: The clay shooters took 10 shots in 3 conditions.The shooters scored one for a hit and zero for a miss.

The tennis players hit the balls delivered from the end of the court at an archery target 3 metres to their left, in the same sequence of conditions. They scored 3 points for hitting the gold or the blue, 2 for the red or black, 1 for the white and 0 for a complete miss.

All but one of the subjects had 6/6 (0.0 LogMAR) vision or better in both eyes., Ttheir eye, hand and foot dominance was recorded.

Results:

Clay target shooters: When the group was divided into shooters who were right eye dominant, right handed and right footed (Type I) and those with any left tendency (Type II), the Type I shooters showed a significant worsening of performance with their dominant eye fogged compared to no fogging (p = 0.0057, N = 7).

Tennis players: The players showed a significant worsening of performance with their non-dominant eye fogged compared to no fogging (p = 0.0047, N = 12). When the Tennis players were divided into Type I and II, Type I showed a significant effect when their non-dominant eye was blurred (p = 0.0053, N = 7).

A two-tailed T test with equal variance was used throughout.

Conclusion: The results show that monocular fogging of vision equivalent to low levels of uncorrected myopia or astigmatism significantly affects performance in sport.

Keywords: Eye Dominance; Non-Dominant Eye; Dominant Eye; Type I Dominance; Type II Dominance; Tennis; Clay Target Shooting; Monocular Fogging; Eye Hand Dominance; Sporting Performance; Left Tendency; Bangerter Foil; Sports Goggles; Myopia; Astigmatism; Binocular Vision; Binocular Deficiency; Peripheral Awareness; Visual Performance; Dispensing; Optometry; Visual Profile; Angular Subtense, Visual Task Analysis

References

  1. Bausch Lomb. “Testing Protocol Manual For The 1994 Olympic Vision Centre At The Winter Olympic Games In Lillehammer Norway”. Available Bausch and Lomb House,106 London Road, Kingston-Upon-Thames, Surrey KT26TN (1994).
  2. Woodward Sir Clive. How we will have the edge at the Olympics (2008).
  3. Park S. “Visual management in world cup cricket”. Paper presented at Sportfair 08. Manchester United Football Club Conference Centre (2008).
  4. Rawstron JA., et al. “A systematic review of the applicability and efficacy of eye exercises”. The Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 2 (2005): 82-88.
  5. Hazel CA. “The efficacy of sports vision practice and its role in clinical optometry”. Optometry Today21 (1996): 29-34.
  6. Noakes TD. “Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance”. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 10 (2000): 123-145.
  7. Bannister RG. “Muscular effort”. Br Med Bull In Noakes above 12 (1956): 222-225.
  8. North RV. “Work and the eye. Pub Butterworth Heinemann, Cpt 10 Driving (1993).
  9. Drasdo N and Haggerty CM. “A comparison of the British number plate and Snellen vision tests for car drivers”. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 1 (1981): 39-54.
  10. Pointer JS. “Sensory motor lateral preferences of amateur motor sport drivers”. Research Journal of Medical Science3 (2008): 121-127.
  11. Lederer J. “Ocular Dominance”. The Australian Journal of Optometry11 (1961): 531-574.
  12. Mc Manus C. “Right Hand, left hand. Published Weidenfeld and Nicolson Cpt 8 The left-brain the right brain the whole brain (2002).
  13. Suttle C., et al. “Sensory ocular dominance based on resolution acuity, contrast sensitivity and alignment sensitivity”. Clinical and Experimental Optometry1 (2008): 2-8.
  14. https://www.easyhit.co.uk/testing-for-eye-dominance
  15. Loran DFC and Griffiths GW. “Visual performance and soccer skills in young players”. Optometry Today 41 (2001): 2.
  16. Griffiths GW. “Sport Vision – Visual performance in shooting. Official Journal of the National Small Bore Rifle Association (NSRA) Summer (2009): 774.
  17. Griffiths GW. Match finding the best lenses of sport – the science. Dispensing Optics (2013).
  18. 6.04 Visual performance in yachting June 18th (2004): 39-44.
  19. Griffiths GW. The incidence of ametropia in elite sport Optometry Today (2005).
  20. Griffiths GW. Visual Performance In Cricket 5639 V215 (1998): 21-26.
  21. Archived Elite vision screenings, published SVUK.
  22. Griffiths GW. “Eye Dominance in sport – a comparative study”. Optometry Today 43 (2003): 16.
  23. Barrett BT. “A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy”. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 1 (2009): 4-25.
  24. Hazel CA. “The efficacy of sports vision practice and its role in clinical optometry”. Optometry Today 36 (1996): 29-34.
  25. Scheiman ML., et al. “A randomized clinical trial of vision therapy/orthoptics versus pencil pushups for the treatment of convergence insufficiency in young adults”. Optometry and Vision Science 7 (2005): 583-595.
  26. Durie D. “The effect of different monovision contact lens powers on the visual function of presbyopic patients”. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 104 (2006): 366-401.
  27. Iacobucci IL., et al. “Bangerter foils in the management of moderate amblyopia”. American Orthoptic Journal 51 (2001): 84-91.
Citation: Geraint William Griffiths. “The Significance of Eye Dominance and Unilateral Fogging of Vision on Sporting Performance”. EC Ophthalmology 11.10 (2020): 37-52.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 04, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk