Research Article
Volume 11 Issue 6 - 2020
Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Analysis in Healthy and Ocular Hypertensive Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography
Efendiyeva Matanat Elton*
National Center of Ophthalmology Named After Academy Zarifa Aliyeva, Baku, Azerbaijan
*Corresponding Author: Efendiyeva Matanat Elton, Ophthalmologist, Head of WET LAB Department at the National Center of Ophthalmology Named After Academy Zarifa Aliyeva, Baku, Azerbaijan.
Received: April 13, 2020; Published: May 15, 2020




Abstract

Purpose: To assess and compare optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements in healthy and ocular hypertension subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Material and Methods: The study enrolled 63 Caucasian patients (126 eyes) of the same Azeri ethnicity. 25 healthy people (50 eyes) and 38 patients (76 eyes) with ocular hypertension. Peripapillary RNFL assessment was performed using “RNFL Thickness Average Analysis Report” and the head analysis with “Optic Nerve Head Analysis” program, Stratus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA). Student and Wilcoxon tests were used to statistically evaluate the results.

Results: The study revealed that considerable thinning of TRNFL (95% confidence interval) when compared to the control group was detected in the inferior quadrant by 8.2% (р ˂ 0,01) and nasal one by 9.1% (р ˂ 0,05), as well as RNFL aver - 6,4% (р ˂ 0,01) and I max - 6,4% (р ˂ 0,05). However, hourly in-depth analysis of the study group when compared to the control one showed a significant thinning of TRNFL that was greater at the nasal quadrant clock: 2:00 by 8,0%; 300 - 7,8%; 4:00 - 13,2% (р ˂ 0,01) and only at 5:00 of the inferior quadrant- 11,7% (р ˂ 0,01); the smallest shortening in TRNFL was at 12:00 - 1.6% in the superior quadrant. The study of bioretinometric indicators of ONH in the second group when compared to the control one revealed that there was a 38.6% increase in the cup area (р ˂ 0,01), cup/disk area ratio by 25,1% (р ˂ 0,05), cup/disk vertical ratio by 11,7% (р ˂ 0,05) and optic nerve disc diameter by 8.8% (р ˂ 0,05). No gender differences were found..

Keywords: Ocular Hypertension; Optical Coherence Tomography; Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer; Optic Nerve Head

References

  1. Chang-Godinich A. “Ocular Hypertension”. Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology (2020).
  2. Dahl, Andrew A. “Ocular Hypertension Remedies, Causes, Treatment and Symptoms”. EMedicine Health (2018).
  3. Kozarsky Alan. “Ocular Hypertension: Causes, Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment”. Web MD (2018).
  4. Boyd Kierstan. “Ocular Hypertension Causes”. American Academy of Ophthalmology (2020).
  5. “European Glaucoma Society Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma, 4th Edition - Chapter 2: Classification and Terminology Supported by the EGS Foundation”. British Journal of Ophthalmology (2017).
  6. “Ocular Hypertension Treatment”. Glaucoma Research Foundation.
  7. Yvonne Ou. BrightFocus Foundation (2019).
  8. “Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) Calculator”. MDCalc.
  9. Essentials in Ophthalmology Glaucoma - Link.
  10. Jaenen N., et al. “Ocular Symptoms and Signs with Preserved and Preservative-Free Glaucoma Medications”. European Journal of Ophthalmology3 (2007): 341-349.
  11. Quigley HA. “The Number of People with Glaucoma Worldwide in 2010 and 2020”. British Journal of Ophthalmology3 (2006): 262-267.
  12. Budenz Donald L., et al. “Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Thickness Measurements Using the Stratus OCT in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science7 (2005): 2440.
  13. Drexler W and J Fujimoto. “State-of-the-Art Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography”. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research1 (2008): 45-88.
  14. Şahli Esra. “Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness with Spectral Domain Oct in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension”. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology08 (2012).
  15. Sommer Alfred. “Clinically Detectable Nerve Fiber Atrophy Precedes the Onset of Glaucomatous Field Loss”. Archives of Ophthalmology1 (1991): 77.
  16. Schuman Joel S., et al. “Reproducibility of Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography”. Ophthalmology11 (1996): 1889-1898.
  17. Blumenthal Eytan Z., et al. “Reproducibility of Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements by Use of Optical Coherence tomography11The Authors Have No Financial Interest in the Optical Coherence Tomography Technology”. Ophthalmology12 (2000): 2278-2282.
  18. Budenz Donald L., et al. “Determinants of Normal Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Stratus OCT”. Ophthalmology6 (2007): 1046-1052.
  19. Budenz D., et al. “Sensitivity and Specificity of the StratusOCT for Perimetric Glaucoma”. Ophthalmology 112.1 (2005): 3-9.
  20. “Stratus OCT™ with Software Version 5.0 Real Answers in Real Time”. Carl Zeiss Meditec.
  21. Sihota Ramanjit., et al. “Diagnostic Capability of Optical Coherence Tomography in Evaluating the Degree of Glaucomatous Retinal Nerve Fiber Damage”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (2006).
  22. “Books on Ophthalmology”. WHS mith.
  23. Samarawickrama Chameen., et al. “Measurement of Optic Nerve Head Parameters: Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography with Digital Planimetry”. Journal of Glaucoma (2009).
  24. Colombo Leonardo., et al. “Correlations between the Individual Risk for Glaucoma and RNFL and Optic Disc Morphometrical Evaluations in Ocular Hypertensive Patients”. Italian Ministry of Health (2016).
  25. Nouri-Mahdavi Kouros., et al. “Identifying Early Glaucoma with Optical Coherence Tomography”. American Journal of Ophthalmology (2004).
  26. Chen Hsin-Yi., et al. “Correlation between Stratus OCT and GDx VCC in Early Glaucoma, Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma Suspect Eyes”. Journal of Optometry 1 (2012): 24-30.
  27. Lin Shan C., et al. “Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis: a Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology”. Ophthalmology (2007).
  28. Zangwill Linda M and Christopher Bowd. “Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis in the Diagnosis of Glaucoma”. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology (2006).
  29. Budenz Donald L., et al. “Sensitivity and Specificity of the StratusOCT for Perimetric Glaucoma”. Ophthalmology (2004).
  30. Leung Christopher KS., et al. “Comparison of Macular and Peripapillary Measurements for the Detection of Glaucoma: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study”. Ophthalmology (2005).
  31. Eun Ji Lee., et al. “Ability of Stratus OCT to Detect Progressive Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Atrophy in Glaucoma”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (2009): 662-668.
  32. “Normative Databases in SD-OCT: A Status Report”. Retinal Physician (2010).
  33. Bowd Christopher. “The Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Ocular Hypertensive, Normal, and Glaucomatous Eyes with Optical Coherence Tomography”. Archives of Ophthalmology1 (2000): 22.
  34. Choi Myung Geun., et al. “Comparison of Glaucomatous Parameters in Normal, Ocular Hypertensive and Glaucomatous Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography 3000”. Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 1 (2005): 40.
  35. Patel Dipak., et al. “Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Analysis in Normal, Ocular Hypertensive, and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: an Optical Coherence Tomography Study”. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences4 (2018): 1304.
  36. Vessani RM., et al. “RNFL Thickness Measured by OCT 3 and Central Corneal Thickness in Ocular Hypertensive Patients”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (2004).
  37. Jha Kirtinath., et al. “Correlation between Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Central Corneal Thickness in Ocular Hypertension”. TNOA Journal of Ophthalmic Science and Research4 (2019): 285.
  38. Teja V Divya. “Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Using Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucomatous, Ocular Hypertensive and Normal Eyes and Its Correlation with Visual Fields”. Journal of Clinical Research and Ophthalmology (2017): 010-013.
Citation: Efendiyeva Matanat Elton. “Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Analysis in Healthy and Ocular Hypertensive Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography”. EC Ophthalmology 11.6 (2020): 19-26.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for July Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the June issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before June 11, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk