Short Communication
Volume 6 Issue 2 - 2016
Plastic Additives in Bodily Fluids Have Hormonal and Behavioral Effects
Kaufui Vincent Wong*
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33146, USA
*Corresponding Author: Kaufui Vincent Wong, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33146, USA.
Received: December 24, 2016; Published: December 27, 2016
Citation: Kaufui Vincent Wong. “Plastic Additives in Bodily Fluids Have Hormonal and Behavioral Effects”. EC Nutrition 6.2 (2016): 95-99.
It is known from the ubiquitous presence of plastic additives in the environment (air, water and land) worldwide, that the human body anywhere (including the Arctic) is bombarded by these compounds daily. It is not surprising then there is ubiquitous presence of plastic additives in human bodily fluids around the world, facilitated by the numerous pathways of these organic compounds into our bodies. It has been shown that Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates upset the hormonal balance in the human body, more in some than in others. In particular, BPA has been demonstrated to cause an adverse effect on sperm and fertility. The United States Food and Drug Administration has expressed “concern about the potential effects of Bisphenol A on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and young children.” Additionally, that endocrine disruptors can cause phenotypes to form, foretell consequences in the fields of environmental contaminants, evolutionary biology and disease pathology. There is thus suspicion that occurrences of homosexuality, lesbianism and transgender characteristics can partly be attributed to these modern environmental contaminants (introduced by mankind). Research needs to be done to establish this suspicion.
Keywords: Polychlorinated Biphenyls; Bisphenol A; Phthalates; Soy; Homosexuality; Lesbianism; Transgender
Though the literature is replete with research and scholarly works regarding the behavioral, social sciences and politics of homosexuality (including same sex attraction of both male and female sexes i.e. both ‘homosexuality’ and ‘lesbianism’ in everyday language) and transgender sexuality, there is hardly any on causation. The common understanding is that homosexuality and transgender characteristics are genetic in origin. For instance, reference [1] is one with ‘health’ in its title, but the work deals mostly with the more obvious health issues of the Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community. The current paper investigates probable causes from the nutritional and environmental perspective.
Reference [2] is a publication regarding the effect of soy on the sexual responses of female rats. This 2004 work showed the negative effect of soy on the sexual behavior of said rats. This modern research confirms knowledge which has been used by Buddhist monks for ages. Soy contains substances that imitate the female hormone estrogen, and lower the intensity of the male hormone, testosterone [3,4]. The elder monks used to feed the teenage monks with soy to control their ‘rowdy’ behavior. In other words, the elder monks were aware of the ability of soy to help suppress the raging hormones of teenage boys going through puberty. In general, Buddhist monks used tofu, a food product from whole soy beans, to help with sexual abstinence since each one of them had vowed to lead a chaste life. The facts presented is evidence that mankind knew for quite a long time that human sexuality can be influenced by nutritional intake. The advent of male enhancement drugs, etc. are the modern products growing out of this knowledge and targeted research and development.
Biologists know that homosexuality is common in the animal kingdom. The author witnessed a homosexual act between two male sealions on one Galapagos island, which was pointed out by the official guide of the tour group. The fact is that homosexuality is a natural result of variability in gene expression in the animal kingdom. That certain fishes become male and female at different times of their lifecycles are evidences of bisexuality.
Xenoestrogens are a kind of xenohormone that mimics estrogen. They are either man-made or natural chemical compounds. Manmade xenoestrogens are extensively used industrial compounds, such as phthalates, Bisphenol A (BPA) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) which have estrogenic effects on a living organism. They are not identical to the estrogenic substances produced internally by the endocrine system of any creature. Xenoestrogens are relevant to the discussion at hand since they imitate the functions of internally and naturally produced estrogen. They are responsible for precocious puberty, for instance, and other disorders of the reproductive system.
Literature Review
In [5], a review was done about BPA, a component of plastics. It was found that this compound, which is found widely in the environment, caused gene changes in multiple generations of rats, and also altered their behaviors. BPA affects the brain and reproductive tissues [5]. It is clear from [6] that BPA is the major estrogenic substance leaching into our water and food supplies. It is also the finding of [7] that BPA was found in the urine samples of 95% of the population. The 2014 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported “some concern about the potential effects of Bisphenol A on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and young children.” [8]; this administration report is based on various research works, amongst them is [9]. It has been shown in [9] that BPA has heritable adverse effects on sperm function and fertility.
Reference [10] is a research work by Rubin., et al. which showed that BPA affected the estrous cycles of female rats, among other effects. Reference [11] is a work on the inhibition of testicular function of male rats by BPA. In other words, their work demonstrated that BPA caused problems with the masculine status of the rats.
In [12], endocrine disrupting activity was investigated in bottled mineral and flavored water. One or more classes of hormonal activity was detected in about seventy-eight percent of the test samples, a high number. It was concluded that the intensity found in each type of endocrine disruptor is not something to worry about with respect to health. However, it was stated that extended exposure and mixture effects need to be researched.
Reference [13] confirms that there is a lot of plastics and plastic wastes in the environment. It was a 2010 research project sponsored by the United States National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Reference [14] was one of the works which contributed to the findings of the expert panel [6], that included “The wide range of adverse effects of low doses of BPA in laboratory animals exposed both during development and in adulthood is a great cause for concern with regard to the potential for similar adverse effects in humans. Recent trends in human diseases relate to adverse effects observed in experimental animals exposed to low doses of BPA. Specific examples include: the increase in prostate and breast cancer, uro-genital abnormalities in male babies, a decline in semen quality in men, early onset of puberty in girls, metabolic disorders including insulin resistant (type 2) diabetes and obesity, and neurobehavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).” A verbatim quote is given to provide an exact version to the reader, and not lose anything with the paraphrasing.
Reference [15] is the work of a panel in 1996 regarding the research needs on the subject of endocrine disruptors. Main findings was that research should be focused on the effect on reproductive ability by these endocrine disruptors, and the combinatorial result of mixtures and the calculation of exposure. Reference [16] is research work that showed endocrine disruptors introduced into female rats had transgenerational adverse effects on male fertility of the off-springs born from said females. In reference [17], it was stated that capability of an endocrine disruptor (environmental contaminant) to stimulate an epigenetic transgenerational phenotype has implications about the possible dangers of environmental contaminants, disease etiology and evolutionary natural science. These sentiments are echoed by the review paper [18] and the book [19].
Routes of human exposure to plastic additives
From [20], it is clear that there are many pathways of plastic additives into the human body. The quotation listing these pathways is as follows:
• “Microwaving foods (esp. acidic and fatty entrees) in plastic containers TV dinners in plastic trays or with plastic film.
• Boil-in bag foods.
• Migration into cheeses/meats, etc, from stretch wrap.
• Hospitalization or medical procedures (stents, catheters, IVs, respiratory devices). IV Bags with fatty substances like food or blood contain up to 50% DEHP
• Pacifiers, baby bottles and children’s toys.
• Cooking with Teflon cookware.
• Canned foods lined with plastic lacquer.
• Eating fish/meats/dairy products (phthalates in food chain).
• Baby foods and infant formulae.
• House dust (e.g. PVC dust from common household vinyl’s such as flooring).
• Air (e.g. phthalates released from plastic car interiors i.e. that “new car” smell, vinyl flooring)” [20].
These common paths or entry methods into a human’s body simply explains why there is ubiquitous presence of phthalates in human bodily fluids, which include blood. It is quite clear that it is almost impossible to avoid phthalates completely in one’s everyday life since it is there in house dust and in the air, we breathe. The use of this list comes from helping us avoid unnecessary additional exposure to BPA and phthalates.
Discussion and Conclusion
The work of [2] is one of many works that confirmed that soy can have an effect on sex hormones and thus sexual behavior, like BPA and phthalates in general. In [12], it was concluded that the long-term endocrine disruptive effects of bottled (in plastic) mineral and flavored water has not been studied, nor the various combinatorial effects. However, the links that were established point to the suspicion that BPA and phthalates have long term adverse effects on reproductive capability [12,14]. Work can be done to research whether BPA and phthalates in the human body may be long-term risk factors in the causation of homosexuality and transgender characteristics in the fetus. Research should be done to establish these connections. It is the public’s duty to keep these contaminants out of the environment. If this clean-up is too difficult and demand too much resources, then society should at least face up to the responsibility of accepting homosexual and transgender people as possible results of the environmental conditions. Governments should also not look upon the LGBT community as deserving of marginalization or punishment.
It is common sense and therefore obvious that entry into this world via the birth canal, under natural conditions, should not be marginalized or illegal in any land under any enlightened government.
  1. Harcourt J. “Current issues in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health: Introduction”. Journal of Homosexuality 51.1 (2006): 1-11.
  2. Patisaul HB., et al. “A soy supplement and tamoxifen inhibit sexual behavior in female rats”. Hormones and Behavior 45.4 (2004): 270-277.
  3. American Nutrition Association. “The Whole Soy Story”. Nutrition Digest 38.2.
  4. Daniel KT. “The Whole Soy Story: The Dark Side of America’s Favorite Health Food”. New Trends Publishing, Inc., Washington, DC (2005).
  5. Wolstenholme JT., et al. “Gestational exposure to bisphenol A produces transgenerational changes in behaviors and gene expression”. Endocrinology 153.8 (2012): 3828-3838.
  6. Vom Saal FS., et al. “Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure”. Reproductive Toxicology 24.2 (2007): 131-138.
  7. Calafat AM., et al. “Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in a human reference population”. Environmental Health Perspectives 113.4 (2005): 391-395.
  8. “Bisphenol A: Use in Food Contact Applications”. U. S. Food and Drug Administration (2014).
  9. Wolstenholme JT., et al. “The role of Bisphenol A in shaping the brain, epigenome and behavior”. Hormones and Behavior 59.3 (2011): 296-305.
  10. Rubin BS., et al. “Perinatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A affects body weight, patterns of estrous cyclicity, and plasma LH levels." Environmental Health Perspectives109.7 (2001): 675-680.
  11. Akingbemi BT., et al. “Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol A is associated with reduced pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in rat Leydig cells”. Endocrinology 145.2 (2004): 592-603.
  12. Plotan M., et al. “Endocrine disruptor activity in bottled mineral and flavoured water”. Food Chemistry 136.3-4 (2013): 1590-1596.
  13. Halden RU. “Plastics and health risks”. Annual Review of Public Health 31 (2010): 179-194.
  14. Wetherill YB., et al.In vitro molecular mechanisms of bisphenol A action”. Reproductive Toxicology 24.2 (2007): 178-198.
  15. Kavlock RJ., et al. “Research needs for the risk assessment of health and environmental effects of endocrine disruptors: a report of the US EPA-sponsored workshop”. Environmental Health Perspectives 104.4 (1996): 715-740.
  16. Anway MD., et al. “Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility”. Science 308.5727 (2005): 1466-1469.
  17. Anway MD and Skinner MK. “Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors”. Endocrinology147.6 (2006): S43-S49.
  18. Crews D and McLachlan JA. “Epigenetics, evolution, endocrine disruption, health, and disease”. Endocrinology 147.6 (2006): S4-S10.
  19. Scott F Gilbert and D Epel. “Ecological Developmental Biology: Integrating Epigenetics, Medicine, and Evolution”. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine82.4 (2009): 231-232.
  20. Johnston S. “Human Exposure to Phthalates” Earth Resource Foundation(2004).
Copyright: © 2016 Kaufui Vincent Wong. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

January Issue Release

We Always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released January issue for the respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for March Issue

E-Cronicon delightfully welcome all the authors around the globe for an effective collaboration with an article submission for the March issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 06, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

E-Cronicon honours with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

E-Cronicon certify the Editors for their first review done towards assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

Latest articles will be updated immediately in the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

Prime moto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation in order to avoid the inconvenience. For an immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to