Opinion
Volume 2 Issue 3 - 2015
Addictive Behaviour of Dietary Intake Among Young Adults in Kuwait
SD Garduño-Diaz and H Abu-Ghazaleh
1Your Choice Nutrition Consultancy, Shaab Al Bahry, Kuwait
2American University of the Middle East, Egaila, Kuwait
*Corresponding Author: SD Garduño-Diaz, Your Choice Nutrition Consultancy, Shaab Al Bahry, Kuwait.
Received: August 03, 2015; Published: September 01, 2015
Citation: SD Garduño-Diaz and H Abu-Ghazaleh. “Addictive Behaviour of Dietary Intake Among Young Adults in Kuwait”. EC Nutrition 2.3 (2015): 348-350.
The concept of food addiction has been much debated and its significance and application remains under scrutiny. In populations with elevated prevalence of obesity and other diet-related non-communicable diseases food addiction may be applicable in targeting these conditions. The Yale Food Addiction scale, currently the most accepted validated tool for the measurement of food addiction, was applied to a convenient sample (n = 37) of male and female university students in Kuwait. To our knowledge this is the first time food addiction is explored in Kuwait. This study is an initial step into the investigation of food addiction among a sample of the Kuwait population. If identified, food addiction may be an emerging modifiable risk factor in public health interventions to reduce the high prevalence of obesity.
The current model of food addiction is based on similarities between certain aspects of overeating and the criteria for substance addiction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [1]. Research has suggested that hyperpalatable foods may be capable of triggering an addictive process [2]. Food addiction is similar to substance addiction in that there is a neurochemical effect in the brain [3].
The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is a tool that has been developed to identify those people most likely to exhibit indicators of substance dependence with the consumption of high fat/high sugar foods. The questions in the YFAS fall under specific criteria that resemble the symptoms for substance dependence as stated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-R and operationalized in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders [4].
The YFAS was applied to a sample population of university students in Kuwait. Convenience sampling method was followed for recruitment via word of mouth with the following inclusion criteria: 1) age >18 years, 2) currently living in Kuwait, 3) without known metabolic, cardiovascular or endocrine diseases, 4) not pregnant or lactating at the time of the study 5) ability to read and write in English. The study was conducted under the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.
The diagnosis of food addiction was based on the YFAS. Responses were coded and scored according to the corresponding instruction sheet [5]. Briefly, cut-offs are used for the continuous questions and assigned either a 0, indicating a question is not significantly met, or 1, question criteria is met. After computing the cut-offs the questions under each substance dependence criterion are summed up. The criteria for food addiction are met when three or more symptoms are present and clinically significant impairment is present [1].
A total of 45 participants (28 female, 17 male) were recruited from a local University in Kuwait. Of these, results from 8 female respondents were dropped due to missing data. The prevalence distribution of symptoms of [food] substance dependence is presented on Figure 1. Three indicators of food addiction were evaluated: tolerance, knowledge of adverse consequences and withdrawal symptoms. 30% of the study population met the diagnosis criteria for diagnosis of food dependence with no significant difference between genders (females 30%, males 29.4%). The majority of the participants (95%) presented a persistent desire or repeated unsuccessful attempt to quit [food] substance abuse. Females were least likely to present characteristic [food] withdrawal symptoms (30%). The foods most commonly identified as problematic include fries, pasta and chips.
The prevalence of food addiction in a Canadian population was reported at 5.4% for the general population (6.7% in females, 3.0% in males) [6], much lower than the rates found in this study.Using the YFAS, 11.4% of predominantly normal-weight young adults were diagnosed as being food addicted [1]. A similar prevalence, 8.8%, was confirmed in a comparable sample in Germany [7]. Prevalence of food addiction has been more widely study in overweight and obese populations with correlations found with both conditions. Whether this correlation is casual or causal remains to be determined.
Figure 1: Prevalence distribution of symptoms for substance dependence.
To our knowledge this is the first time a food addiction scale has been applied in Kuwait. While the concept of food addiction is a popular one and may influence the over consumption of high-fat/high-sugar foods, it is unlikely to be part of the causal pathway in most people with obesity. At a population level, one of the main drivers of the raise in prevalence of obesity seems to be increased availability of food, with a consequential imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. This is where food addiction would interfere.
This study is an initial step into the investigation of food addiction among a sample of the Kuwaiti population. While food addiction may be a causal factor in obesity, it is likely to be so only in certain individuals and a model for the establishment of food addiction as a valid condition is lacking. Alternative approaches to exploring the brain’s contributions to obesity warrant study. If established, food addiction may be an emerging modifiable risk factor in public health interventions to reduce the high prevalence of obesity.
Figure 2: Mediators of food addiction.
Bibliography
  1. Gerhardt AN., et al. “Food addiction: an examination of the diagnostic criteria for dependence”. Journal of Addiction Medicine3.1 (2009): 1-7.
  2. Ziauddeen H and Fletcher PC. “Is food addiction a valid and useful concept?” Obesity Reviews 14.1 (2013): 19-28.
  3. Johnson PM and Kenny PJ. “Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats”. Nature Neuroscience 13.5 (2010): 635-641.
  4. Gerhardt AN., et al. “Instruction Sheet for the Yale Food Addiction Scale”. (2008).
  5. Gerhardt AN., et al. “Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale”. Appetite 52 (2008): 430-436.
  6. Pedram P., et al. “Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population”. PLoS ONE 8.9 (2013): e74832.
  7. Meule A., et al. “German translation and validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale”Diagnostica 58.3 (2012): 115-126.
Copyright: © 2015 SD Garduño-Diaz and H Abu-Ghazaleh. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


February Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the February issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 21, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.