Research Article
Volume 17 Issue 3 - 2022
The Correlations of Levels of Main Thiol Substances of Serum of Adult Healthy and Ill Persons with the Levels of Typical Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases (In Memory of Late Professor Edward Bald (1941-2019)
Turski Wojciech Antoni1*, Bald Edward2, Głowacki Rafał2, Urbanowicz Lidia3 and Wiśniewski Damian4
1Holy Cross (Świętokrzyska) College, Kielce, Poland
2Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Lodz, Poland
3Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Branch at Piotrkow Trybunalski, Poland
4Independent Complex of Public Outpatient Health Care Facilities, Diagnostic and Consultation Center, Rehabilitation Clinic, Warsaw-Targówek, Poland
*Corresponding Author: Turski Wojciech Antoni, Holy Cross (Świętokrzyska) College, Kielce, Poland.
Received: January 31, 2022; Published: March 30, 2022


Introduction: The increase in the concentration of homocysteine in the blood plasma is usually associated with atherosclerosis and all kinds of cardiovascular [and other] diseases. We all know the classic risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases in general: overweight (obesity), so high BMI, high total and "bad" cholesterol (LDL), and low concentration of "good" HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glycemia, high systolic and diastolic blood pressure and homocysteine. However there are just a few studies that would explicite describe the possible correlations of the concentrations of homocysteine and other major plasma thiol compounds (cysteine, glutathione, cysteinylglycine) on the one hand, and "classic" risk factors on the other hand. However, recently we have had a real explosion of interest in these low molecular thiols, particularly glutathione, its level and metabolism [especially so called γ-glutamyl cycle]. Then the sexual dimorphism of these processes was discovered.

Objective of the Study: The main objective was to find out what correlations exist, if any, between the levels of above-mentioned thiol substances themselves but most of all the possible correlations of their levels and those of the above-mentioned "classic" risk factors for atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases [and typical for so called metabolic syndrome.

Materials and Methods: 80 patients of the cardiology clinic of the Provincial Hospital John Paul II in Bełchatów [Poland]; including 53 women and 27 men; 45 of them were healthy, i.e. not yet diagnosed as ill, and 35 patients (diagnosed). Blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides concentrations were determined using the analytical system Dimension R [Dade Behring].

The concentration of the thiols was determined after their separation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultraviolet detection after the suitable derivatization in the Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Lodz.

Main Conclusions:

  1. There exist but rather seldom significant differences between men and women and between healthy and sick people as far as the levels of both low molecular thiol substances and those of typical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are compared.
  2. However, there are quite a lot of significant correlations between: a. the serum levels of thiol substances themselves, b. thiol substances and typical risk factors, c. typical risk factors themselves.

These correlations, sometimes strong or quite strong, seem to be the matter of whole paper as far as the prognostic values are taken into account.

  1. The observed correlations between thiol substances might be explained assuming so called sexual dimorphism of enzymes of both transulfuration and γ-glutamyl cycle ie an indirect activation of cystathionase [CTH] with estradiol and such an inhibition of gamma glutamyltranspeptidase with the male hormones.
  2. Above mentioned effects and additionally prooxidative activity of cysteinylglycine explain the observed differences of correlations between thiolos and classical risk factors in men and women.


Keywords: Low-Molecular Thiols; Transsulfuration-Gamma Glutamyl Cycle; Cardiovascular Diseases’ Risk Factors; Antioxidants; Glutathione; Prooxidative Activity of Cysteinylglycine; Sexual Dimorphism


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Citation: Turski Wojciech Antoni., et al. “The Correlations of Levels of Main Thiol Substances of Serum of Adult Healthy and Ill Persons with the Levels of Typical Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases (In Memory of Late Professor Edward Bald (1941-2019))”. EC Nutrition 17.3 (2022): 27-44.

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