Research Article
Volume 17 Issue 5 - 2022
Feminism and the Prevention of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating among Young Females: Opportunities for Nutrition and Dietetic Practice
Catarina Araújo Marques Estrela1* and Lynne Kennedy2
1Catarina A.M. Estrela MSc., RDN, University of Chester and County Durham & Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, UK
2L.A. Kennedy PhD., RNut, MFPH, University of Chester, UK & Zayed University, College of Natural and Health Sciences, Professor of Public Health and Nutrition, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E.
*Corresponding Author: Catarina Araújo Marques Estrela, MSc., RDN, University of Chester and County Durham & Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
Received: November 29, 2021; Published: April 28, 2022




Abstract

Introduction: Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction are socially structured responses and have been linked with eating disorders. Researchers have pointed to feminism as possible protective and predictive factor against eating disorders. Given the dramatic increase in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating associated with the dramatic rise in social media usage amongst young women in the UK, this work set out to test this hypothesis.

Methods: A non-randomized online survey, using existing validated scales was used to examine the association between body dissatisfaction, feminist identity, and disordered eating, among young women in the UK. Online social media platforms were used to recruit 224 young (aged 18 - 31) women. Following data collection, the sample was divided into two subgroups according to disordered eating criteria, positive disordered eating, and negative disordered eating. Mann-Whitney U test indicated a significant difference (p > 0.05) between the groups when two feminist subscales were assessed.

Results: The subscale Passive Acceptance had a positive Spearman’s correlation with the level of disordered eating and with the Bulimia and Food Preoccupation subscale. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated that feminism was a predictor of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating when assessed by the synthesis subscale. feminism is a protective and predictor factor of disordered eating. The link with body satisfaction however was statistically not significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The inclusion of gender deconstruction strategies in non-prescriptive interventions, including health education and counselling efforts, is potentially effective in promoting body acceptance and may help prevent disordered eating in young females. Further research involving larger samples is advised to test the impact on body dissatisfaction.

Keywords: Eating Disorders; Feminism; Body Dissatisfaction; Dieting; Body Acceptance; Non-Prescriptive Therapy

References

  1. Keski-Rahkonen A and Mustelin L. “Epidemiology of eating disorders in Europe: prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors”. Current Opinion in Psychiatry6 (2016): 340-345.
  2. Green H., et al. “Mental health of children and young people in Great Britain, 2004”. In Child and Fa 14 (2009).
  3. Smink FRE., et al. “Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates”. Current Psychiatry Reports4 (2012): 406-414.
  4. Brechan I and Kvalem IL. “Relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: mediating role of self-esteem and depression”. Eating Behaviors 17 (2015): 49-58.
  5. Fitzsimmons-Craft EE., et al. “Examining an elaborated sociocultural model of disordered eating among college women: the roles of social comparison and body surveillance”. Body Image4 (2014): 488-500.
  6. Bucchianeri MM and Neumark-Sztainer D. “Body dissatisfaction: An overlooked public health concern”. Journal of Public Mental Health2 (2014): 64-69.
  7. Dumas AA and Desroches S. “Women’s Use of Social Media: What Is the Evidence About Their Impact on Weight Management and Body Image?” Current Obesity Reports1 (2019): 18-32.
  8. Powell E., et al. “Attachment security and social comparisons as predictors of Pinterest users’ body image concerns”. Computers in Human Behavior 83 (2018): 221-229.
  9. Holland G and Tiggemann M. “A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes”. Body Image 17 (2016): 100-110.
  10. Festinger L. “A Theory of Social Comparison Processes”. Human Relations2 (1954): 117-140.
  11. Neumark-Sztainer D., et al. “Dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood: Findings from a 10-year longitudinal study”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association7 (2011): 1004-1011.
  12. Aparicio-Martinez P., et al. “Social Media, Thin-Ideal, Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating Attitudes: An Exploratory Analysis”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health21 (2019).
  13. Pinkasavage E., et al. “Social comparison, negative body image, and disordered eating behavior: The moderating role of coping style”. Eating Behaviors 16 (2015): 72-77.
  14. Levitt D. “Drive for Thinness and Fear of Fat Among College Women: Implications for Practice and Assessment”. Journal of College Counselling (2004): 7.
  15. Kinsaul JAE., et al. “Empowerment, feminism, and self-efficacy: Relationships to body image and disordered eating”. Body Image1 (2014): 63-67.
  16. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th). American Psychiatric Association (2013).
  17. Schaefer LM and Thompson JK. “Self-objectification and disordered eating: A meta-analysis”. The International Journal of Eating Disorders6 (2018): 483-502.
  18. Tylka TL and Hill MS. “Objectification theory as it relates to disordered eating among college women”. Sex Roles11-12 (2004): 719-730.
  19. Slater A., et al. “#fitspo or #loveyourself? The impact of fitspiration and self-compassion Instagram images on women’s body image, self-compassion, and mood”. Body Image 22 (2017): 87-96.
  20. Polivy J. “Psychological consequences of food restriction”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96 (1996): 589-592.
  21. Berg FM. “Health risks associated with weight loss and obesity treatment programs”. Journal of Social Issues2 (1999): 277-297.
  22. Wolf N. “The Beauty myth: How images of beauty are used against women”. London: Vintage (1991).
  23. Puhl R and Suh Y. “Stigma and eating and weight disorders”. Current Psychiatry Reports3 (2015): 552.
  24. Vartanian LR and Porter AM. “Weight stigma and eating behavior: A review of the literature”. Appetite 102 (2016): 3-14.
  25. Wu YK and Berry DC. “Impact of weight stigma on physiological and psychological health outcomes for overweight and obese adults: A systematic review”. Journal of Advanced Nursing5 (2018): 1030-1042.
  26. Rubino F., et al. “Joint international consensus statement for ending stigma of obesity”. Nature Medicine4 (2020): 485-497.
  27. Olszewski PK., et al. “Oxytocin: A Conditional Anorexigen whose Effects on Appetite Depend on the Physiological, Behavioural and Social Contexts”. Journal of Neuroendocrinology4 (2016).
  28. Holsen LM., et al. “Food motivation circuitry hypoactivation related to hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of hunger and satiety in women with active anorexia nervosa and weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa”. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience: JPN5 (2012): 322-332.
  29. O’Hara L., et al. “Evaluating the impact of a brief Health at Every Size®-informed health promotion activity on body positivity and internalized weight-based oppression”. Body Image 37 (2021): 225-237.
  30. Bacon L., et al. “Size acceptance and intuitive eating improve health for obese, female chronic dieters”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association6 (2005): 929-936.
  31. Piran N. “A feminist perspective on risk factor research and on the prevention of eating disorders”. Eating Disorders3 (2010): 183-198.
  32. Dionne M., et al. “Feminist ideology as a predictor of body dissatisfaction in women”. Sex Roles3 (1995): 277-287.
  33. Borowsky HM., et al. “Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating”. Eating Disorders4 (2016): 297-311.
  34. Hurt MM., et al. “Feminism: What is it good for? Feminine norms and objectification as the link between feminist identity and clinically relevant outcomes”. Sex Roles5-6 (2007): 355-363.
  35. Guille C and Chrisler JC. “Does feminism serve a protective function against eating disorders?” Journal of Lesbian Studies4 (1999): 141-148.
  36. Mahowald MB. “To be or not be a woman: anorexia nervosa, normative gender roles, and feminism”. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy2 (1992): 233-251.
  37. Dorian BJ. “An integration of feminist and self-psychological approaches to bulimia nervosa”. Eating and Weight Disorders2 (2001): 107-114.
  38. Murnen SK and Smolak L. “Femininity, masculinity, and disordered eating: A meta-analytic review”. International Journal of Eating Disorders3 (1997): 231-242.
  39. Murnen SK and Smolak L. “Are feminist women protected from body image problems? A meta-analytic review of relevant research”. Sex Roles3-4 (2009): 186-197.
  40. Fredrickson B and Roberts TA. “Objectification Theory: Toward Understanding Women’s Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks”. Psychology of Women Quarterly 21 (1997): 173-206.
  41. Harned MS and Fitzgerald LF. “Understanding a link between sexual harassment and eating disorder symptoms: a mediational analysis”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology5 (2002): 1170-1181.
  42. Madowitz J., et al. “The relationship between eating disorders and sexual trauma”. Eating and Weight Disorders3 (2015): 281-293.
  43. Green MA., et al. “Feminist identity as a predictor of eating disorder diagnostic status”. Journal of clinical psychology6 (2008): 777-788.
  44. Venturo-Conerly K., et al. “Recovery as an “Act of rebellion”: a qualitative study examining feminism as a motivating factor in eating disorder recovery”. Eating Disorders3 (2020): 265-271.
  45. Holmes S. “Blindness to the obvious”? Treatment experiences and feminist approaches to eating disorders”. Feminism and Psychology 26 (2016): 464-486.
  46. Holmes S., et al. “Feminist approaches to Anorexia Nervosa: A qualitative study of a treatment group”. Journal of Eating Disorders 5 (2017): 36.
  47. Fischer AR., et al. “Assessing Women’s Feminist Identity Development: Studies of Convergent, Discriminant, and Structural Validity”. Psychology of Women Quarterly1 (2000): 15-29.
  48. Downing NE and Roush KL. “From Passive Acceptance to Active Commitment: A Model of Feminist Identity Development for Women”. The Counseling Psychologist4 (1985): 695-709.
  49. Moradi B., et al. “Revisiting Feminist Identity Development Theory, Research, and Practice”. Counseling Psychologist 30 (2002): 6-43.
  50. Evans C and Dolan B. “Body Shape Questionnaire: derivation of shortened “alternate forms”. The International Journal of Eating Disorders3 (1993): 315-321.
  51. Rosen JC., et al. “Body shape questionnaire: Studies of validity and reliability”. International Journal of Eating Disorders3 (1996): 315-319.
  52. Garner DM., et al. “The eating attitudes test: psychometric features and clinical correlates”. Psychological Medicine4 (1982): 871-878.
  53. Garner DM and Garfinkel PE. “The Eating Attitudes Test: an index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa”. Psychological Medicine2 (1979): 273-279.
  54. White JH. “Feminism, eating, and mental health. ANS”. Advances in Nursing Science3 (1991): 68-80.
  55. Grippo KP and Hill MS. “Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators”. Body Image2 (2008): 173-182.
  56. Howard LM., et al. “Is use of social networking sites associated with young women’s body dissatisfaction and disordered eating? A look at Black-White racial differences”. Body Image 23 (2017): 109-113.
  57. Wilfley DE., et al. “Eating disturbance and body image: a comparison of a community sample of adult black and white women”. The International Journal of Eating Disorders4 (1996): 377-387.
  58. Binard F. “The British Women’s Liberation Movement in the 1970s: Redefining the Personal and the Political le mouvement britannique pour la libération des femmes dans les années 1970: Redéfinir le personnel et le politique”. Revue Française de Civilisation Britannique 22 (2017): 0-17.
  59. Verhoef SPM., et al. “Physiological response of adipocytes to weight loss and maintenance”. PLOS ONE8 (2013): 58011. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058011
  60. Wang SS., et al. “The influence of the stigma of obesity on overweight individuals”. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders10 (2004):1333-1337. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802730. PMID: 15278101.
Citation: Catarina Araújo Marques Estrela and Lynne Kennedy. “Feminism and the Prevention of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating among Young Females: Opportunities for Nutrition and Dietetic Practice”. EC Nutrition 17.5 (2022): 13-26.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 14, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.