Editorial
Volume 16 Issue 12 - 2021
Diet and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis
Paul Clayton*
Clinical Pharmacologist and Pharmaco-Nutritionist, United Kingdom
*Corresponding Author: Paul Clayton, Clinical Pharmacologist and Pharmaco-Nutritionist, United Kingdom.
Received: November 05, 2021; Published: November 16, 2021




If you are not yet convinced that the modern diet is degrading and shortening our lives, consider your liver. As waistlines expand, so does the incidence of non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). Thanks to our modern diet and lifestyle, NAFLD is now reckoned to affect an astonishing quarter of the entire population of the world [1].

During the next decade non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a sequel of NAFLD, is projected to increase by up to 56% [1,2]; and as NAFLD and NASH are the most rapidly growing causes of hepatocellular carcinoma in many countries [1,2], liver cancer driven by these factors is projected to double in the same time period.

References

  1. Huang DQ., et al. “Global epidemiology of NAFLD-related HCC: trends, predictions, risk factors and prevention”. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 18 (2021): 223-238.
  2. Younossi Z., et al. “Global burden of NAFLD and NASH: trends, predictions, risk factors and prevention”. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology1 (2018): 11-20.
  3. Maier S., et al. “Lean NAFLD: an underrecognized and challenging disorder in medicine”. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 2 (2021): 351-366.
  4. Bellentani S., et al. “Prevalence of and risk factors for hepatic steatosis in Northern Italy”. Annals of Internal Medicine 132 (2000): 112-117.
  5. Kwon YM., et al. “Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with components of metabolic syndrome according to body mass index in Korean adults”. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 107 (2012): 1852-1858.
  6. Xu C., et al. “Prevalence and risk factors for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a nonobese Chinese population: the Zhejiang Zhenhai Study”. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 108 (2013): 1299-1304.
  7. Younes R and Bugianesi E. “NASH in Lean Individuals”. Seminars in Liver Disease1 (2019): 86-95.
  8. Das K and Chowdhury A. “Lean NASH: distinctiveness and clinical implication”. Hepatology International2 (2013): 806-813.
  9. Singh S., et al. “Fibrosis progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver vs nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of paired-biopsy studies”. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology4 (2015): 643-654.
  10. Van der Windt DJ., et al. “The Effects of Physical Exercise on Fatty Liver Disease”. Gene Expression2 (2018): 89-101.
  11. Haghighatdoost F., et al. “The effects of low carbohydrate diets on liver function tests in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials”. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 21 (2016): 53.
  12. Tendler D., et al. “The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study”. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 2 (2007): 589-593.
  13. Watanabe M., et al. “Beneficial effects of the ketogenic diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review of the literature”. Obesity Reviews 8 (2020): e13024.
  14. Regnell SE and Lernmark Å. “Hepatic steatosis in type 1 diabetes”. The Review of Diabetic Studies4 (2011): 454-467.
  15. Barros BSV., et al. “Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its associated factors in individuals with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care center in Brazil”. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome1 (2021): 33.
  16. Cusi K., et al. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence and its metabolic associations in patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism11 (2017): 1630-1634.
  17. Lambert JE., et al. “Increased de novo lipogenesis is a distinct characteristic of individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease 146.3 (2014): 726-735.
  18. Shulman GI. “Ectopic fat in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and cardiometabolic disease”. The New England Journal of Medicine12 (2014): 1131-1141.
  19. Petersen KF., et al. “The role of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America31 (2007): 12587-12594.
  20. Donnelly KL., et al. “Sources of fatty acids stored in liver and secreted via lipoproteins in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”. Journal of Clinical Investigation5 (2005): 1343-1351.
  21. Browning JD., et al. “Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate restriction”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition5 (2011): 1048-1052.
  22. Haghighatdoost F., et al. “The effects of low carbohydrate diets on liver function tests in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials”. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 21 (2016): 53.
  23. Hyde PN., et al. “Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss”. JCI Insight 12 (2019): e128308.
  24. Athinarayanan SJ., et al. “Long-Term Effects of a Novel Continuous Remote Care Intervention Including Nutritional Ketosis for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-Year Non-randomized Clinical Trial”. Frontiers in Endocrinology (2019): 348.
  25. Van Der Windt DJ., et al. “The Effects of Physical Exercise on Fatty Liver Disease”. Gene Expression 2 (2018): 89-101.
  26. Wang ST., et al. “Physical activity intervention for non-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. BMC Gastroenterology1 (2020): 66.
  27. Romero-Gómez M., et al. “Treatment of NAFLD with diet, physical activity and exercise”. The Journal of Hepatology4 (2017): 829-846.
  28. Schwarz JM., et al. “Effect of a High-Fructose Weight-Maintaining Diet on Lipogenesis and Liver Fat”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism6 (2015): 2434-2442.
  29. Tappy L. “Fructose-containing caloric sweeteners as a cause of obesity and metabolic disorders”. The Journal of Experimental Biology1 (2018): jeb164202.
  30. Geidl-Flueck B., et al. “Fructose- and sucrose- but not glucose-sweetened beverages promote hepatic de novo lipogenesis: A randomized controlled trial”. Journal of Hepatology (2021).
  31. Chatelan A., et al. “Total, Added, and Free Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines in Switzerland: Results from the First National Nutrition Survey menuCH 5 (2019): 1117.
  32. Azaïs-Braesco V., et al. “A review of total and added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe”. Nutrition Journal1 (2017): 6.
  33. Newens KJ and Walton J. “A review of sugar consumption from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world”. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics2 (2016): 225-240.
  34. Khadge S., et al. “Dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate hepatic pathology”. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 52 (2018): 92-102.
  35. Ferramosca A and Zara V. “Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 7 (2014): 1746-1755.
  36. Capanni M., et al. “Prolonged n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation ameliorates hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study”. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 8 (2006): 1143-1151.
  37. Tanaka N., et al. “Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid treatment improves nonalcoholic steatohepatitis”. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology41 (2008): 413-418.
  38. Bozzetto L., et al. “Liver fat is reduced by an isoenergetic MUFA diet in a controlled randomized study in type 2 diabetic patients”. Diabetes Care7 (2012): 1429-1435.
  39. Loman BR., et al. “Prebiotic and probiotic treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Nutrition Reviews11 (2018): 822-839.
  40. Safari Z and Gérard P. “The links between the gut microbiome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences8 (2019): 1541-1558.
  41. Abenavoli L., et al. “Health benefits of Mediterranean diet in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”. Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology9 (2018): 873-881.
  42. Fraser A., et al. “A modified Mediterranean diet is associated with the greatest reduction in alanine aminotransferase levels in obese type 2 diabetes patients: results of a quasi-randomised controlled trial 51 (2008): 1616-1622.
  43. Ryan MC., et al. “The Mediterranean diet improves hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”. The Journal of Hepatology 59 (2013): 138-143.
  44. Bozzetto L., et al. “Liver fat is reduced by an isoenergetic MUFA diet in a controlled randomized study in type 2 diabetic patients”. Diabetes Care 35 (2012): 1429-1435.
  45. Trovato FM., et al. “Mediterranean diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the need of extended and comprehensive interventions”. Clinical Nutrition 34 (2015): 86-88.
  46. Abenavoli L., et al. “Effects of Mediterranean diet supplemented with silybin-vitamin E-phospholipid complex in overweight patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”. Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 9 (2015): 519-527.
  47. Misciagna G., et al. “Effect of a Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial”. The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 21 (2017): 404-412.
  48. Cantero I., et al. “Dietary Inflammatory Index and liver status in subjects with different adiposity levels within the PREDIMED trial”. Clinical Nutrition5 (2018): 1736-1743.
  49. Oddy WH., et al. “The Western dietary pattern is prospectively associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence”. The American Journal of Gastroenterology5 (2013): 778-785.
  50. Simoes ICM., et al. “Fat and Sugar-A Dangerous Duet”. A Comparative Review on Metabolic Remodeling in Rodent Models of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 11.12 (2019): 2871.
Citation: Paul Clayton. “Diet and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis”. EC Nutrition 16.12 (2021): 01-06.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 25, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.