Research Article
Volume 16 Issue 10 - 2021
Effects of Nutrient Replacement on Yields in the Corn-Wheat/Soybean Sequence
Gudelj VJ1*, H Ghío2, O Gudelj1, C Lorenzon1, MB Conde1, C Galarza1, P Tamburrini3 and F García4
1EEA, INTA Marcos Juárez, Provincial Route No. 12 (2580) Marcos Juárez, Córdoba, Argentina
2AAPRESID, Argentina
3ASP, Argentina
4IPNI CONE SUR, Argentina
*Corresponding Author: Gudelj VJ, EEA, INTA Marcos Juárez, Provincial Route No. 12 (2580) Marcos Juárez, Córdoba, Argentina.
Received: March 22, 2020; Published: September 28, 2021




Abstract

In Argentina, the process of agriculturalization, started in the corn kernel area in the mid-1970s, with excessive tillage, inadequate weed control and little nutrient replacement, which negatively impacts the trend in yields. In the mid-1980s, conservation work began to spread, which consisted of significantly reducing the number of tasks from the harvest of the previous crop to the implantation of the next. This was the previous step to the diffusion of direct sowing (SD) that, by leaving all the crop residues on the surface, reduces losses due to soil and water erosion, also improving its infiltration. In addition, the appearance of new herbicides allows better weed control. Everything results in higher crop yields compared to those implanted with soil removal, mainly attributable to more efficient use of rainwater and at the expense of soil nutrients, given that the balances (contribution through fertilization - extraction of nutrients by grain harvest) are negative. Thus, arises the need for information regarding nutrient replacement in continuous agriculture under SD. Given the above, there is a need for information regarding nutrient replacement in continuous agriculture under SD. INTA, the Association of producers in direct sowing (AAPRESID), the NUTRIENT Company and the International Institute of Plant Nutrition (IPNI), beginning in the 1999 - 2000 cycle and for 18 years two experiences, one in a batch with a long agricultural history without nearby layers and another where the agricultural history of the lot was brief but the layer was close to the roots. The investigation took place in the rural area of the INTA Corral de Bustos Extension Agency in the Marcos Juárez department, Córdoba province.

The objective of the experiences was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and the yield of the crops before different fertilization treatments that included the replacement of nutrients when using the Maize-Wheat/Soybean sequence implanted in SD. The purpose was to find fertilization alternatives that improve soil quality and crop yield. In the present work the results referring to the crop yield are presented. In corn the best yields were achieved when replacement fertilization was used. In wheat, this only happened in the place with the greatest agricultural history. With this treatment in the site with the longest agricultural history and without nearby layers, 88% and 89% of the potential dryland yields in the study region were reached for wheat and corn, respectively. At the site with the lowest agricultural history and near groundwater, said potential was exceeded by 10 and 17% for wheat and corn, respectively, which showed the greater importance of increasing the fertilization doses in this type of environment. In soybeans, the best yields were achieved when fertilized with sulfur (S) or with S combined with other nutrients.

The results showed that, if fertilization were stopped, in lots with many years of continuous agriculture, wheat and corn yields would decrease by 50% and soybean yields by approximately 27%.

In the analyzed period, there was no significant incidence due to the application of micronutrients in the average yields obtained. However, there was a performance bonus when micronutrients were applied in some of the last cycles evaluated, suggesting that possibly from now on they become more important in the definition of yields.

Replenishment treatments, in the site with the longest agricultural history and without nearby water levels, with respect to the dose used by the average producer in the area, improved the efficiency of water use in wheat and corn by 11.4%, while for soybean cultivation, this improvement was 28% when comparing replacement treatments with the Control treatment without fertilization.

According to the comparative analysis of yields of the experiment with respect to the average yields of the producers of the Marcos Juárez department or that of producers with soils without water limitations, wheat mainly and also maize appear as the crops where the most effect would have to increase the dose of fertilization, in order to reduce the gap with respect to the potential yield possible to achieve.

 

Keywords: Nutrient Replacement; Corn-Wheat/Soybean Sequence; Direct Sowing (SD); Association of Producers in Direct Sowing (AAPRESID); International Institute of Plant Nutrition (IPNI)

References

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Citation: Gudelj VJ., et al. “Effects of Nutrient Replacement on Yields in the Corn-Wheat/Soybean Sequence”. EC Nutrition 16.10 (2021): 87-98.

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