Review Article
Volume 16 Issue 7 - 2021
Spirulina Rising: The Application of Microalgae in Protecting Human Health and Treating Disease
Mark F McCarty1 and Nicholas A Kerna2,3*
1Catalytic Longevity, USA
2SMC-Medical Research, Thailand
3First InterHealth Group, Thailand
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse, Bangrak, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: September 09, 2019; Published: June 30, 2021


Microalgae constitute two-thirds of the earth’s biomass. Microalgae have long been cultivated and consumed by humans and they have been recognized as a vital and highly beneficial food source. Also, microalgae may help prevent certain diseases and be applied to promote health and longevity. The oral administration of PhyCB, phycocyanin, or whole Spirulina have shown potential for preventing or treating many human disorders. Spirulina lowered LDL cholesterol in several clinical trails, and was found to exert exert a positive effect on triglycerides, HDL, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and oxidative stress markers. Microalgae are abundant sources of the essential fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). A marine alga, Crypthecodinium cohnii, produces the long-chain omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA, taken daily, favorably influences memory function in healthy older adults experiencing age-related cognitive decline. The microalgae of the genus Dunaliella are abundant in the more bioactive 9-cis form (compared to the all-transform) of beta-carotene. Spirulina can lessen exercise-induced blood oxidative stress markers and augment fat burning during submaximal exercise. Diets abundant in these microalgae-derived nutrients protect against macular degeneration. Spirulina may enhance immunity and act as an anticancer and carcinopreventive agent. A commercial preparation, Immulina, has been found to boost natural killer (NK) cell activity stimulating dendritic cells, which are required for NK cell activation. Calcium spirulan, extracted from Spirulina, inhibits the infectivity of specific viruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in cell culture studies. The oral administration of Spirulina can ameliorate for allergic rhinitis. Additional antioxidant options are available to complement PhyCB and AST antioxidant actions. By combining doses of PhyCB and AST with specific adjunctive antioxidants, “full-spectrum antioxidant therapies” may be achieved. Specific research studies have indicated possible contraindications for high doses of Spirulina or PhyCB. However, any side effects should be cleared from the body within 24–48 hours of discontinuing Spirulina administration. Spirulina is the most readily-available and promising microalgae currently under commercial production in various parts of the world. Spirulina, along with other microalgae should be further investigated as supplements for human health promotion and maintenance, and the treatment or amelioration of disease, and as a sustainable, cost-effective, nutrition-rich, conscientious, and sustainable human food source.

Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory; Astaxanthin; HIV; Microalgae; Omega-3 Fatty Acid DHA; Phase 2 Response; Phycocyanobilin; Phyconutrients; Treg Cells; Zeaxanthin


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Citation: McCarty MF, Kerna NA. “Spirulina Rising: The Application of Microalgae in Protecting Human Health and Treating Disease”. EC Nutrition 16.7 (2021): 141-152.

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