Review Article
Volume 16 Issue 7 - 2021
Spirulina Rising: The Application of Microalgae in Protecting Human Health and Treating Disease
Mark F McCarty1 and Nicholas A Kerna2,3*
1Catalytic Longevity, USA
2SMC-Medical Research, Thailand
3First InterHealth Group, Thailand
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse, Bangrak, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: September 09, 2019; Published: June 30, 2021




Abstract

Microalgae constitute two-thirds of the earth’s biomass. Microalgae have long been cultivated and consumed by humans and they have been recognized as a vital and highly beneficial food source. Also, microalgae may help prevent certain diseases and be applied to promote health and longevity. The oral administration of PhyCB, phycocyanin, or whole Spirulina have shown potential for preventing or treating many human disorders. Spirulina lowered LDL cholesterol in several clinical trails, and was found to exert exert a positive effect on triglycerides, HDL, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and oxidative stress markers. Microalgae are abundant sources of the essential fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). A marine alga, Crypthecodinium cohnii, produces the long-chain omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA, taken daily, favorably influences memory function in healthy older adults experiencing age-related cognitive decline. The microalgae of the genus Dunaliella are abundant in the more bioactive 9-cis form (compared to the all-transform) of beta-carotene. Spirulina can lessen exercise-induced blood oxidative stress markers and augment fat burning during submaximal exercise. Diets abundant in these microalgae-derived nutrients protect against macular degeneration. Spirulina may enhance immunity and act as an anticancer and carcinopreventive agent. A commercial preparation, Immulina, has been found to boost natural killer (NK) cell activity stimulating dendritic cells, which are required for NK cell activation. Calcium spirulan, extracted from Spirulina, inhibits the infectivity of specific viruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in cell culture studies. The oral administration of Spirulina can ameliorate for allergic rhinitis. Additional antioxidant options are available to complement PhyCB and AST antioxidant actions. By combining doses of PhyCB and AST with specific adjunctive antioxidants, “full-spectrum antioxidant therapies” may be achieved. Specific research studies have indicated possible contraindications for high doses of Spirulina or PhyCB. However, any side effects should be cleared from the body within 24–48 hours of discontinuing Spirulina administration. Spirulina is the most readily-available and promising microalgae currently under commercial production in various parts of the world. Spirulina, along with other microalgae should be further investigated as supplements for human health promotion and maintenance, and the treatment or amelioration of disease, and as a sustainable, cost-effective, nutrition-rich, conscientious, and sustainable human food source.

Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory; Astaxanthin; HIV; Microalgae; Omega-3 Fatty Acid DHA; Phase 2 Response; Phycocyanobilin; Phyconutrients; Treg Cells; Zeaxanthin

References

  1. McCarty MF. “Clinical potential of Spirulina as a source of phycocyanobilin”. Journal of Medicinal Food4 (2007): 566-570. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18158824
  2. Chapman DJ., et al. “Chromophores of allophycocyanin and R-phycocyanin”. Biochemical Journal3 (1967): 903-905. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16742564
  3. Torres-Duran PV., et al. “Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of Mexican population: a preliminary report”. Lipids in Health and Disease 6 (2007): 33. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18039384
  4. Nagaoka S., et al. “A novel protein C-phycocyanin plays a crucial role in the hypocholesterolemic action of Spirulina platensis concentrate in rats”. The Journal of Nutrition10 (2005): 2425-2430. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16177207
  5. Lee EH., et al. “A randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients”. Nutrition Research and Practice4 (2008): 295-300. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20016733
  6. Saravanan P., et al. “Cardiovascular effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids”. Lancet9740 (2010): 540-550. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20638121
  7. Simopoulos AP. “The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases”. Experimental Biology and Medicine6 (2008): 674-688. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18408140
  8. Simopoulos AP. “Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition6 (2002): 495-505. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12480795
  9. Nordstrom DC., et al. “Alpha-linolenic acid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized study: flaxseed vs. safflower seed”. Rheumatology International6 (1995): 231-234. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7597378
  10. Whelan J. “Dietary stearidonic acid is a long chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid with potential health benefits”. The Journal of Nutrition1 (2009): 5-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056654
  11. Ratledge C., et al. “Production of docosahexaenoic acid by Crypthecodinium cohnii grown in a pH-auxostat culture with acetic acid as principal carbon source”. Lipids11 (2001): 1241-1246. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11745-001-0838-x
  12. de Swaaf ME., et al. “Fed-batch cultivation of the docosahexaenoic-acid-producing marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii on ethanol”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology1 (2003): 40-43. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12658513
  13. Hadley KB., et al. “Preclinical safety evaluation in rats using a highly purified ethyl ester of algal-docosahexaenoic acid”. Food and Chemical Toxicology10 (2010): 2778-2784. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20633595
  14. Yurko-Mauro K., et al. “Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive decline”. Alzheimer's and Dementia - Journal6 (2010): 456-464. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20434961
  15. Sangiovanni JP., et al. “The relationship of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with incident age-related macular degeneration: AREDS report no. 23”. Archives of Ophthalmology9 (2008): 1274-1279. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18779490
  16. Augood C., et al. “Oily fish consumption, dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid intakes, and associations with neovascular age-related macular degeneration”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition2 (2008): 398-406. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18689376
  17. Martins JG. “EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition5 (2009): 525-542. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439549
  18. Stebbins CL., et al. “Effects of dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on eNOS in human coronary artery endothelial cells”. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics4 (2008): 261-268. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18682551
  19. Engler MM., et al. “Docosahexaenoic acid restores endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: results from the EARLY study”. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics12 (2004): 672-679. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15624283
  20. Matesanz N., et al. “Docosahexaenoic acid improves the nitroso-redox balance and reduces VEGF-mediated angiogenic signaling in microvascular endothelial cells”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science12 (2010): 6815-6825. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20702831
  21. Streppel MT., et al. “Long-term fish consumption and n-3 fatty acid intake in relation to (sudden) coronary heart disease death: the Zutphen study”. European Heart Journal16 (2008): 2024-2030. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641046
  22. Aarsetoy H., et al. “Low levels of cellular omega-3 increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation during the acute ischaemic phase of a myocardial infarction”. Resuscitation3 (2008): 258-264. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556107
  23. Holub BJ. “Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cardiovascular disease risk factors”. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids2-3 (2009): 199-204. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19545988
  24. Conquer JA and Holub BJ. “Dietary docosahexaenoic acid as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid in vegetarians and omnivores”. Lipids 3 (1997): 341-345. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9076673
  25. Garcia-Gonzalez M., et al. “Production of Dunaliella salina biomass rich in 9-cis-beta-carotene and lutein in a closed tubular photobioreactor”. Journal of Biotechnology 115.1 (2005): 81-90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15607227
  26. Shaish A., et al. “9-cis beta-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella bardawil increases plasma HDL-cholesterol in fibrate-treated patients”. Atherosclerosis 1 (2006): 215-221. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16413556
  27. Harari A., et al. “A 9-cis beta-carotene-enriched diet inhibits atherogenesis and fatty liver formation in LDL receptor knockout mice”. The Journal of Nutrition10 (2008): 1923-1930. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18806102
  28. Sanchez-Martinez R., et al. “The retinoid X receptor ligand restores defective signalling by the vitamin D receptor”. EMBO Reports10 (2006): 1030-1044. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16936639
  29. Kalafati M., et al. “Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise1 (2010): 142-151. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20010119
  30. Ma L and Lin XM. “Effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on aspects of eye health”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture1 (2010): 2-12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20355006
  31. Hirahashi T., et al. “Activation of the human innate immune system by Spirulina: augmentation of interferon production and NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis”. International Immunopharmacology4 (2002): 423-434. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11962722
  32. Balachandran P., et al. “Toll-like receptor 2-dependent activation of monocytes by Spirulina polysaccharide and its immune enhancing action in mice”. International Immunopharmacology12 (2006): 1808-1814. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17052671
  33. Akao Y., et al. “Enhancement of antitumor natural killer cell activation by orally administered Spirulina extract in mice”. Cancer Science8 (2009): 1494-1501. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19432881
  34. Pugh N., et al. “Isolation of three high molecular weight polysaccharide preparations with potent immunostimulatory activity from Spirulina platensis, aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Chlorella pyrenoidosa”. Planta Medica8 (2001): 737-742. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11731916
  35. Suarez ER., et al. “Immunostimulatory polysaccharides from Chlorella pyrenoidosa. A new galactofuranan. measurement of molecular weight and molecular weight dispersion by DOSY NMR”. Biomacromolecules 8 (2006): 2368-2376. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903684
  36. Benedetti S., et al. “Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae”. Life Sciences19 (2004): 2353-2362. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15350832
  37. Benedetti S., et al. “Purification and characterization of phycocyanin from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae”. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences1 (2006): 12-18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266834
  38. Rinalducci S., et al. “De novo sequence analysis and intact mass measurements for characterization of phycocyanin subunit isoforms from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae”. Journal of Mass Spectrometry4 (2009): 503-515. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19053161
  39. Benedetti S., et al. “Oxygen radical absorbance capacity of phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from the food supplement Aphanizomenon flos-aquae”. Journal of Medicinal Food1 (2010): 223-227. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20136460
  40. Mao TK., et al. “Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients”. Journal of Medicinal Food1 (2005): 27-30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15857205
  41. Remirez D., et al. “Role of histamine in the inhibitory effects of phycocyanin in experimental models of allergic inflammatory response”. Mediators of Inflammation2 (2002): 81-85. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1781653/
  42. Hayashi O., et al. “Class specific influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on antibody production in mice”. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology6 (1998): 841-851. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10197315
  43. Chen LL., et al. “[Experimental study of spirulina platensis in treating allergic rhinitis in rats]”. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban1 (2005): 96-98. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15871200
  44. Cingi C., et al. “The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis”. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology10 (2008): 1219-1223. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18343939
  45. Suzuki Y., et al. “Role of oxidants in mast cell activation”. Chemical Immunology and Allergy Home 87 (2005): 32-42. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16107761
  46. Surh YJ., et al. “Nrf2 as a master redox switch in turning on the cellular signaling involved in the induction of cytoprotective genes by some chemopreventive phytochemicals”. Planta Medica13 (2008): 1526-1539. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18937164
  47. Fahey JW., et al. “Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America19 (1997): 10367-10372. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9294217
  48. Flier J., et al. “The neuroprotective antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid induces detoxication enzymes in cultured astroglial cells”. Free Radical Research6 (2002): 695-699. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12180195
  49. Cao Z., et al. “Induction of endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by alpha-lipoic acid in rat cardiac H9C2 cells: protection against oxidative injury”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications3 (2003): 979-985. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14550301
  50. Jia Z., et al. “Potent upregulation of glutathione and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 by alpha-lipoic acid in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: protection against neurotoxicant-elicited cytotoxicity”. Neurochemical Research5 (2008): 790-800. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17940886
  51. Ziegler D., et al. “Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial”. Diabetes Care11 (2006): 2365-2370. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17065669
  52. Rodriguez C., et al. “Regulation of antioxidant enzymes: a significant role for melatonin”. Journal of Pineal Research1 (2004): 1-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14675124
  53. Reiter RJ., et al. “Actions of melatonin in the reduction of oxidative stress. A review”. Journal of Biomedical Science6 (2000): 444-458. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11060493
  54. De Rosa SC., et al. “N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione in HIV infection”. European Journal of Clinical Investigation10 (2000): 915-929. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11029607
  55. Atkuri KR., et al. “N-Acetylcysteine--a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency”. Current Opinion in Pharmacology4 (2007): 355-359. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17602868
  56. Dodd S., et al. “N-acetylcysteine for antioxidant therapy: pharmacology and clinical utility”. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy12 (2008): 1955-1962. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18990082
  57. Antoniades C., et al. “5-methyltetrahydrofolate rapidly improves endothelial function and decreases superoxide production in human vessels: effects on vascular tetrahydrobiopterin availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase coupling”. Circulation11 (2006): 1193-1201. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16940192
  58. Rezk BM., et al. “Tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate are folates with high antioxidant activity. Identification of the antioxidant pharmacophore”. FEBS Letters3 (2003): 601-605. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14675781
  59. McCarty MF., et al. “High-dose folate and dietary purines promote scavenging of peroxynitrite-derived radicals--clinical potential in inflammatory disorders”. Medical Hypotheses5 (2009): 824-834. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409716
  60. Moens AL., et al. “High-Dose Folic Acid Pretreatment Blunts Cardiac Dysfunction During Ischemia Coupled to Maintenance of High-Energy Phosphates and Reduces Postreperfusion Injury”. Circulation 14 (2008): 1810-1819. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18362233
  61. Tawakol A., et al. “High-dose folic acid acutely improves coronary vasodilator function in patients with coronary artery disease”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology10 (2005): 1580-1584. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15893170
  62. Moens AL., et al. “Effect of folic acid on endothelial function following acute myocardial infarction”. The American Journal of Cardiology4 (2007): 476-481. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17293188
  63. McCarty MF. “Practical prevention of cardiac remodeling and atrial fibrillation with full-spectrum antioxidant therapy and ancillary strategies”. Medical Hypotheses2 (2010): 141-147. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20083360
  64. McCarty MF. “Potential utility of full-spectrum antioxidant therapy, citrulline, and dietary nitrate in the management of sickle cell disease”. Medical Hypotheses6 (2010): 1055-1058. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20089363
  65. Salazar M., et al. “Subchronic toxicity study in mice fed Spirulina maxima”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology3 (1998): 235-241. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9849634
  66. Chamorro G., et al. “[Update on the pharmacology of Spirulina (Arthrospira), an unconventional food] Actualizacion en la farmacologia de Spirulina (Arthrospira), un alimento no convencional”. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición3 (2002): 232-240. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12448336
  67. Chamorro G., et al. “[Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga]”. Clinical and Translational Investigation5 (1996): 389-399. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9005517
  68. Chamorro G and Salazar M. “[Teratogenic study of Spirulina in mice]”. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 1 (1990): 86-94. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2129477
  69. Salazar M., et al. “Effect of Spirulina maxima consumption on reproduction and peri- and postnatal development in rats”. Food and Chemical Toxicology4 (1996): 353-359. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8641661
  70. Vazquez-Sanchez J., et al. “Spirulina maxima and its protein extract protect against hydroxyurea-teratogenic insult in mice”. Food and Chemical Toxicology11 (2009): 2785-2759. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19703510
  71. Paniagua-Castro N., et al. “Spirulina (Arthrospira) Protects Against Cadmium-Induced Teratogenic Damage in Mice”. Journal of Medicinal Food4 (2011): 398-404. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21254891
  72. Raijmakers MT., et al. “Oxidative stress and preeclampsia: rationale for antioxidant clinical trials”. Hypertension4 (2004): 374-380. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15326082
  73. Dechend R., et al. “AT1 receptor agonistic antibodies from preeclamptic patients stimulate NADPH oxidase”. Circulation12 (2003): 1632-1639. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12668498
  74. Matsubara K., et al. “Role of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia”. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 2 (2010): 239-247. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20492372
Citation: McCarty MF, Kerna NA. “Spirulina Rising: The Application of Microalgae in Protecting Human Health and Treating Disease”. EC Nutrition 16.7 (2021): 141-152.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


February Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the February issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 23, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.