Research Article
Volume 16 Issue 5 - 2021
Ocimum gratissimum (OG) Leaf Extract to Offer Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties in Food
Akwetey WY1*, Adzitey F2 and Teye GA2
1Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Sciences, University for Development Studies, Nyankpala, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana
*Corresponding Author: Akwetey WY, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
Received: February 18, 2021; Published: April 30, 2021


Aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) was screened for phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Saponins and flavonoids were “very strongly present”; terpenoids, tannins, phenol, steroids were “strongly present” Terpenoids, Tannins, Phenol, Steroids were “strongly present” while Alkaloids, Glycosides and Quinines were absent. Microbial activity of OG leaf extracts reduced with reducing concentrations from 200 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml for all organisms tested and significant antimicrobial activities were observed against all the organisms at 100 mg/ml. The organisms susceptible at 50 mg/ml extract were S. typhi and C. pefringens at a zone of 13.50 mm. Most of the organisms studied did not show any visible growth at 3.125 mg/ml OG, except P. aeruginosa. More so, E. coli, C. pefringens and L. monocytogenes had a common minimum inhibition concentration of 1.5625 mg/ml. OG extract exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher scavenging activity compared to standard ascorbic acid at 5.0 µg/ml DPPH. The results of this study suggest that aqueous OG extract has potential effects on the microorganisms studied. Aqueous OG extracts could therefore offer some benefits in microbial decontamination activities as well as preventing autoxidation reactions in foods. It is thus recommended to explore the potential use benefits of OG leaf extract in non-nitrite cured meat formulations.

Keywords: Ocimum gratissimum; Aqueous Leaf Extract; Phytochemical; Microbial Decontamination; Autoxidation


  1. Farombi EO., et al. “Interference of common antimalarial drugs with some hepatic microsomal components and drug metabolism: potential implications for toxicity”. South African Journal of Science 94 (1998): 303-304.
  2. Akinmoladun AC., et al. “Phytochemical constituent and antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum”. Scientific Research and Essay5 (2007): 163-168.
  3. Ijeh II., et al. “Antimicrobial effects of aqueous and ethanolic fractions of two spices, Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica”. African Journal of Biotechnology9 (2005): 953-956.
  4. Oliver B. “Medicinal Plants in Nigeria”. Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology (1980): 90-94.
  5. Rabelo M., et al. “Antinociceptive properties of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum (Labiatae) in mice”. Brazilian Journal of Medical Biology Resources 36 (2003): 521-524.
  6. , et al. “Anthelmintic Activity of Essential Oil of Ocimum gratissimun Linn. and Eugenol against Haemonchus Contortus”. Veterinary Parasitology 1.2 (2002): 59-63.
  7. Chitwood DJ. “Phytochemical based strategies for nematode control”. Annual Review of Phytopathology 40 (2003): 221-249.
  8. Holets F., et al. “Effect of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum on the trypanosomatid Herpetomonas samuelpessoai”. Acta Protozoologica4 (2003): 269-276.
  9. Trease GE and Evans WC. “Phytochemicals”. In: Pharmacognosy, Saunders Publishers, London (2002).
  10. Adeniyi BA., et al. “Antimicrobial potentials of Diospyros Mespiliformis (Ebenace4e)”. African Journal of Medicinal and Medical Science 25 (1996): 221-224.
  11. Hatipoglu G., et al. “Automated and standard extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L. ssp. Angustifolius”. Industrial Crops and Products 43 (2013): 427-433.
  12. SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 15.0.1 for Windows. USA: Microsoft Inc (2006).
  13. Szakiel A., et al. “Influence of environmental abiotic factors on the content of saponins in plants”. Phytochemical Review 10 (2011): 471-491.
  14. Mugford ST and Osburn A. “Isoprenoid Synthesis in Plants and Microorganisms”. Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Prokaryotic Organisms: In: New Concepts and Experimental Approaches (2013): 1-16.
  15. Usman H., et al. “Phytochemical and antimicrobial screenings of the leaf extracts of Celtis integrifolia Lam”. Journal of Tropical Bioscience 5 (2005): 72-76.
  16. Palou L., et al. “Alternatives to conventional fungicides for the control of citrus postharvest green and blue molds”. International Journal of Stewart Postharvest Review2 (2008): 1-16.
  17. Centeno S., et al. “Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus”. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences9 (2010): 452-455.
  18. Prakash B., et al. “Plant essential oils as food preservatives to control molds, mycotoxin contamination and oxidative deterioration of agrifood commodities - Potentials and challenges”. Food Control 47 (2015): 381-391.
  19. Hendel N., et al. “Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and it’s in vitro inhibitory effect on Penicillium digitatum”. International Food Research Journal4 (2016): 1725-1732.
  20. Wiegand I., et al. “Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances”. Nature Protocols 3 (2008): 163-175.
  21. Tekwu EM., et al. “Antibacterial activity of selected Cameroonian dietary spices ethno-medically used against strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology2 (2012): 374-382.
  22. Kuete V. “Potential of Cameroonian plants and derived products against microbial infections: a review”. Planta Medica 76 (2010): 1-13.
  23. Ogunniran KO. “Antibacterial effect of extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Piper guineense on E. coli and S. aureus”. African Journal of Food Science3 (2009): 77-81.
  24. Effraim KD., et al. “Histopathological studies on the toxicity of Ocimum gratissimum leave extract on some organs of rabbit”. African Journal of Biomedical Research 6 (2000): 21-25.
Citation: Akwetey WY., et al. “Ocimum gratissimum (OG) Leaf Extract to Offer Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties in Food”. EC Nutrition 16.5 (2021): 41-48.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 18, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.