Research Article
Volume 16 Issue 5 - 2021
Effect of Three Tenderizers; (Papain, Bromelain and Ficin) on the Tenderization of Beef (Oxtail)
Onyeneke Esther-Ben Ninikanwa1* and Ekenyem Benjamin Ugochukwu2
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Services, Faculty of Agriculture, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Onyeneke Esther-Ben Ninikanwa, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
Received: December 22, 2020; Published: April 30, 2021




Abstract

The study on the effect of three tenderizers Papain (Treatment II) Bromelain (Treatment III) and Ficin (Treatment IV) and control (Treatment I) on the tenderization of beef (oxtail) was investigated. The tenderizers efficacy was determined using enzymes individually from the plant vegetables on meat cut from cow oxtail (4 - 5 years of age) at the food science laboratory of Imo state university Owerri. Meat samples were subjected to sensory evaluation of 10 semi-trained panelists for acceptability and physiochemical analysis at the same laboratory in triplicate order. Results obtained from this study showed that all the tenderizing treatments were significant differences (p < 0.05) in all the meat samples. However, Papain (Treatment II) had the higher tenderizing effect while the control (Treatment I) showed the leash tenderizing effect. In the nutrient composition of tenderized meat, the control (Treatment I) showed the highest moisture content (69 - 58%) and crude protein (26 - 94%) whereas Bromelain (Treatment III) showed highest crude fat (6 - 7), ash content (1.12 %) and dry matter (38.35). Bromelain was significantly different (P < 0.05) among other tenderizers. Significant difference (P < 0.05) existed among on all the mineral contents of the meat tenderizers and control (Treatment 1). No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the weight change and cost benefit of meat samples before and after cooking with tenderizers, including the control. Phytochemical analysis revealed that all the tenderizers showed positive result in saponin, they showed negative with cyanogenic glucoside except Ficin. The sensory evaluation result revealed that all the meat samples were accepted by consumers but consumers, preferred mostly, the Papain (Treatment II) meat samples as significant difference (P < 0.05) existed among other meat samples, while the control (Treatment I) was the least preferred. Hence, the three tenderizers had positive tenderizer effect on the cow oxtail meat. Therefore, meat from spent cow can be tenderized using these proteolytic enzymes (Papain, Bromelain and Ficin) rather than tenderizing with metals, potash, trona, carbonated beverages and salt which may be harmful to the human health.

 

Keywords: Tenderizing Treatment; Oxtail; Plant Proteolytic Enzymes; Sensory Evaluation

References

    1. Madubike FN and Ekenyem BU. “Ruminant animal production and handling in the tropics 2n ed. PEKAN publishers limited, Imo, State, Nigeria page (2001).
    2. Madubike FN and Ekenyem BU. Ruminant animal production and handling in the tropics. Guest graphic center, Owerri, Imo State (2001): 166.
    3. Koohmaarie KJ and Geesink. “Biochemical regulating the toughening and tenderization process meat”. Meat Science 64 (2006): 507-512.
    4. Brown IJ., et al. “Salt intake around the world. Implications for public health”. International Journal of Epidemiology 16 (2009).
    5. Braghier A., et al. “Physical composition of meat”. Meat Science 69 (2005): 681-689.
    6. Encyclopedia Britannica. Meat quality 11 (2005): 745.
    7. Encyclopedia Britannica estimated World livestock numbers 2 (2008): 7.
    8. Wikipedia.org/wiki/meat tenderness (2001).
    9. Meat qualities 2014).
    10. Filzhugh DJ., et al. “Bromelin treatment decrease neutrophol migration to sites of inflammation”. Clinical Immunology 128 (2008): 66-67.
    11. Kekeocha EC. “Animal nutrition in the tropics”. Ovii publishing house-owerri. Imo State Nigeria (2001): 160.
Citation: Onyeneke Esther-Ben Ninikanwa and Ekenyem Benjamin Ugochukwu. “Effect of Three Tenderizers; (Papain, Bromelain and Ficin) on the Tenderization of Beef (Oxtail)”. EC Nutrition 16.5 (2021): 28-37.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 18, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.