Research Article
Volume 16 Issue 3 - 2021
Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on Steroid Hormones Synthesis, Blood Lipids and Body Weight in Rats
Sultana Zaben Al Otaibi1* and Adnan Bajaber2
11Chief of clinical nutrition, Dr sulaiman Alhabib Hospital, Saudi Arabia; Human Nutrition, King Saud university, Saudi Arabia
2Human Nutrition, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Sultana Zaben Al Otaibi, Chief of clinical nutrition, Dr sulaiman Alhabib Hospital, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Received: January 22, 2021; Published: February 26, 2021




Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Green coffee extract on body weight, blood lipids and steroid hormones synthesis on rats.

The extracts of green and roasted coffee were prepared using Methanol 80%. 35 rats have been divided to 5 equal groups, the first group was fed by normal diet without supplementing and the other four groups were fed by high fat diet. The second groups was left without any supplementation while the third and fourth group were fed by 1 ml of green coffee extracts 0.5% and 1% respectively. The fifth group was supplemented by 1 ml of roasted coffee extract 1%. After 6 weeks the weight gain and food intake was calculated and the serum was taken to test blood lipids and ACTH, FSH, LH Hormones.

The results showed that the supplementation by 1% Green coffee extract lead to significant decrease in blood lipids and cholesterol, Also it showed significant increase in FSH hormone comparing by other groups. While there is no difference between all groups in ACTH and LH hormones. Supplementation by roasted coffee extract show better effect on blood lipid profile without affecting FSH level. Coffee analysis showed that the roasting process may lead to liberation of caffeine and decrease in chlorogenic acid content with no difference in phenol content.

Keywords: Green coffee, roasted coffee, chlorogenic acid, phenols, caffeine, obesity, weight loss, steroid hormone, coffee extract, food intake, appetite

References

  1. Allain CC., et al. “Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol”. Clinical Chemistry 20 (1974): 470-475.
  2. Casal S., et al. “Discrimination between arabica and robusta coffee species on the basis of their amino acid enantiomers”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (2003): 6495-6501.
  3. Champe PC., et al. “Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry (4th edition)” (2008): 219-244.
  4. Cho AS., et al. “Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48 (2010): 937-943.
  5. Clifford MN. “Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates–nature, occurrence, dietary burden, absorption and metabolism”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80 (2000): 1033-1043.
  6. Corrêa TAF., et al. “Paper-filtered coffee increases cholesterol and inflammation biomarkers independent of roasting degree: A clinical trial”. Journal of Nutrition 29 (2013): 977-981.
  7. Ezzat AR and el-Gohary ZM. “Hormonal and histological effects of chronic caffeine administration on the pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-adrenocortical axes in male rabbits”. Functional and Developmental Morphology 4 (1994): 45-50.
  8. Farah A. “Coffee Constituents”. In: Yi-Fang Chu, Coffee: Emerging Health Effects and Disease Prevention, (first edition) (2012): 21-58.
  9. Farah A and Donangelo CM. “Phenolic compounds in coffee”. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 18 (2006): 23-36.
  10. Farah A., et al. “Effect of roasting on the formation of chlorogenic acid lactones in coffee”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (2005): 1505-1513.
  11. Farah A., et al. “Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans”. The Journal of Nutrition 138 (2008): 2309-2315.
  12. Fenster L., et al. “Caffeine consumption and menstrual function”. American Journal of Epidemiology 149 (1999): 550-557.
  13. Ferrini RL and Barrett-Connor E. “Caffeine Intake and Endogenous Sex Steroid Levels in Postmenopausal Women The Rancho Bernardo Study”. American Journal of Epidemiology 144 (1996): 642-644.
  14. Fossati P and Prencipe L. “Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide”. Clinical Chemistry 28 (1982): 2077-2080.
  15. Fujioka K and Shibamoto T. “Chlorogenic acid and caffeine contents in various commercial brewed coffees”. Food Chemistry 106 (2008): 217-221.
  16. Gaafar M Ahmed., et al. “Effect of Green and Degree of Roasted Arabic Coffee on Hyperlipidemia and Antioxidant Status in Diabetic Rats”. The Journal of Food Science and Technology 5 (2013): 619-626.
  17. Goto A., et al. “Coffee and caffeine consumption in relation to sex hormone-binding globulin and risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women”. Diabetes 60 (2011): 269-275.
  18. Hsu CL., et al. “Inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in relation to their antioxidant activity”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (2006): 4191-4197.
  19. J Thomas., et al. “Cholesterol: Biosynthesis, Functional Diversity, Homeostasis and Regulation by Natural Products”. In Ekinci, D., Biochemistry (First Edition) (2012): 419-442.
  20. J Segals. “Glycoprotein Hormones: Gonadotropins and Thyrotropin”. In Baulieu, E.-E., and Kelly, P. A., Hormones: from molecules to disease (first Edition). Springer Science and Business) (1990) 257-277.
  21. Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME., et al. “Effects Of Green Coffee Bean Extract in Some Biomarkers of Adult Brazilian Subjects”. Alimentos e Nutrição Araraquara 20 (2009): 185-190.
  22. Jee SH., et al. “Coffee consumption and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials”. American Journal of Epidemiology 153 (2001): 353-362.
  23. Jungwirth A., et al. “European Association of Urology guidelines on Male Infertility: the 2012 update”. European Urology 62 (2012): 324-332.
  24. Karabudak E., et al. “Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile”. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 9 (2015): 1841-1846.
  25. Kaškonienė V., et al. “Quantitative and qualitative determination of phenolic compounds in honey”. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 52 (2009): 74-80.
  26. Khoddami A., et al. “Techniques for analysis of plant phenolic compounds”. Molecules 18 (2013): 2328-2375.
  27. Kitts DD. “Studies on the estrogenic activity of a coffee extract”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 20 (1987): 37-49.
  28. Kotsopoulos J., et al. “Relationship between caffeine intake and plasma sex hormone concentrations in premenopausal and postmenopausal women”. Cancer 115 (2009): 2765-2774.
  29. Kraemer FB., et al. “Cholesterol ester droplets and steroidogenesis”. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 371 (2013): 15-19.
  30. Landau S and Everitt B. “A handbook of statistical analyses using SPSS (First Edition) Chapman and Hall/CRC”. Boca Raton, Florida (2004): 1-339.
  31. Li SY., et al. “Modulating effects of chlorogenic acid on lipids and glucose metabolism and expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in golden hamsters fed on high fat diet”. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 22 (2009): 122-129.
  32. London S., et al. “Alcohol and other dietary factors in relation to serum hormone concentrations in women at climacteric”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (1991): 166-171.
  33. Lucero J., et al. “Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use”. Fertility and Sterility 76 (2001): 723-729.
  34. McArdle CA and Roberson MS. “Gonadotropes and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Signaling”. In Plant, T. M., and Zeleznik, A. J., Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction (Fourth Edition) (2015): 335-397.
  35. McClure RD. “Endocrinology of Male Infertility”. In Patton P and Battaglia D. Office Andrology (Second Edition.) (2005): 11-37.
  36. McGowan MW., et al. “A peroxidase-coupled method for the colorimetric determination of serum triglycerides”. Clinical Chemistry 29 (1983): 538-542.
  37. Meng S., et al. “Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2013): 1-11.
  38. Murase T., et al. “Coffee polyphenols suppress diet-induced body fat accumulation by downregulating SREBP-1c and related molecules in C57BL/6J mice”. The American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism 300 (2010): E122-E33.
  39. Norman AW and Litwack G. “Steroid Hormones: Chemistry, Biosynthesis, and Metabolism”. In Norman, A. W., and Litwack, G., Hormones (second edition) (1997): 49-86.
  40. Oestreich-Janzen S. “Chemistry of Coffee”. In Liu, H. W., and Mander, L., Comprehensive Natural Products II: Chemistry and Biology (second edition) (2010): 1085-1117.
  41. Onakpoya I., et al. “The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials”. Gastroenterology Research and Practice (2011): 1-6.
  42. Park JS and Han K. “The Spermatogenic Effect of Yacon Extract and Its Constituents and Their Inhibition Effect of Testosterone Metabolism”. Biomolecules and Therapeutics 21 (2013): 153-160.
  43. Rodriguez De Sotillo DV and Hadley M. “Chlorogenic acid modifies plasma and liver concentrations of: cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and minerals in (fa/fa) Zucker rats”. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 13 (2002): 717-726.
  44. Scaramuzzi RJ., et al. “The circulating concentrations of FSH, LH and prolactin in the oestradiol-implanted ovariectomized ewe treated with caffeine”. Animal Reproduction Science 45 (1997): 273-282.
  45. Schliep KC., et al. “Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95 (2012): 488-497.
  46. Scholz BM and Maier HG. “Isomers of quinic acid and quinide in roasted coffee”. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 190 (1990): 132-134.
  47. Schwartz N. “Reproduction and Fertility”. In Melmed, S., and Conn, P. M., Endocrinology: Basic and clinical principles (second ed.) (2005): 367-373.
  48. Shimoda H., et al. “Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice”. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 6 (2006): 1-9.
  49. Song SJ., et al. “Decaffeinated Green Coffee Bean Extract Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2014): 1-14.
  50. Speer K and Kölling-Speer I. “The lipid fraction of the coffee bean”. Journal of Plant Physiology 18 (2006): 201-216.
  51. St-Onge MP. “Coffee Consumption and Body Weight Regulation”. In Preedy, V. R., Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention (first ed.) (2015): 499-506.
  52. Sultana B., et al. “Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts”. Molecules 14 (2009): 2167-2180.
  53. Tanaka K., et al. “Anti-obesity and hypotriglyceridemic properties of coffee bean extract in SD rats”. Food Science and Technology Research 15 (2009): 147-152.
  54. Thom E. “The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people”. Journal of International Medical Research 35 (2007): 900-908.
  55. Trugo L and Macrae R. “A study of the effect of roasting on the chlorogenic acid composition of coffee using HPLC”. Food Chemistry 15 (1984): 219-227.
  56. Van Der Wulp MYM., et al. “Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis”. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 368 (2013): 1-16.
  57. Vinson JA., et al. “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects”. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity 5 (2012): 21-27.
  58. Wan CW., et al. “Chlorogenic acid exhibits cholesterol lowering and fatty liver attenuating properties by up-regulating the gene expression of PPAR-alpha in hypercholesterolemic rats induced with a high-cholesterol diet”. Phytotherapy Research 27 (2013): 545-551.
  59. Wang N. “Physicochemical Changes Of Coffee Beans During Roasting. Master of Science, The University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada (2012).
  60. Wedick NM., et al. “The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial”. Journal of Nutrition 11 (2012):1-6.
  61. Zych M., et al. “Natural phenolic acids may increase serum estradiol level in ovariectomized rats”. Acta Biochimica Polonica (2009): 503-507.
Citation: Sultana Zaben Al Otaibi and Adnan Bajaber. “Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on Steroid Hormones Synthesis, Blood Lipids and Body Weight in Rats”. EC Nutrition 16.3 (2021): 12-27.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 21, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk