Research Article
Volume 16 Issue 2 - 2021
Fatty Acid Composition of Grape Seed Oil as Affected by Grape Variety and Extraction Solvent
Jianmei Yu1*, Ivy Smith1, John Carver2 and Bryce Holmes2
1Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA
2Department of Natural Resource and Environmental Design, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA
*Corresponding Author: Jianmei Yu, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA.
Received: January 01, 2020; Published: January 30, 2021




Abstract

Grape seeds are valuable by-product of grapes from wine industry. In addition to health promoting polyphenols, grape seeds contain significant amount of oil. In this study, grape seed oils (GSOs) were extracted from the seeds of two Muscadine cultivars and two Cabernet cultivars using hexane and chloroform-methanol. The oil yields and total polyphenol contents of the crude oil were quantified. The fatty acid composition of each GSO sample was determined by GC. Results show that Muscadine Nobel seeds had lowest total oil yield regardless the extraction solvents. Major fatty acids in GSOs were linoleic (C18:2), oleic (C18:1), palmitic (C16:0) and stearic acids (C18:0). Hexane extracted oils showed higher C16:0, C18:0, C18:2, but lower C18:1 contents than chloroform-methanol extracted oils. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents were 83.34 - 85.93 for hexane extracted oil 85.71 - 88.84% for chloroform-methanol extracted oils, respectively, depending on the grape cultivars. Linoleic acid dominated the unsaturated fatty acids in all samples. The high unsaturated fatty acid content makes GSO a good choice for food products that need to be in the liquid form at temperature. Total polyphenol contents of GSO also varied with extraction solvents and is cultivar dependent. The results indicate that fatty composition of different grape seed varies only slightly, but is influenced significantly by extraction solvent due to the polarity difference of different fatty acid. Therefore, when comparing fatty acid composition and antioxidant content of oils from different materials, it is important to make sure that all oil samples are extracted by same solvent and under same extraction condition.

Keywords : Grape Seed Oil; Extraction Solvent; Oil Yield; Fatty Acid Composition; Polyphenol Contents

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Citation: Jianmei Yu., et al. “Fatty Acid Composition of Grape Seed Oil as Affected by Grape Variety and Extraction Solvent”. EC Nutrition 16.2 (2021): 51-58.

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