Research Article
Volume 15 Issue 11 - 2020
Studies on the Proximate, pH, Titratable Acidity and Microbial Activity of Maize Fermented Meal Fortified with Soybean and Bambaranut to Produce Infant Weaning Meal
Bintu BP1*, Maryam BK2, Falmata AS1, Abdulmalik IA1, Isa ZY1 and Modu S1
1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
2Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Bintu BP, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Received: October 08, 2020; Published: October 31, 2020




Abstract

White maize was fermented to produce an infant weaning food fortified by soybean and bambaranut, soybean and Bambaranut were roasted. The research was carried out to determine the proximate composition, PH, Titratable acidity and Microbial activity. Infant weaning food was formulated in a 70:20:10 ratio i.e. 70(g) white maize 20(g): soyabean: 10(g) bamabaranut. By Standard Procedures. Parameters analyzed were carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Values were significant at P 0.05. The weaning food blend had a potent level of (12.71 ± 0.19) which was below the control cerelac® (15) but has met the RDA of infants 0 - 1 year (12.44). The fat (13.13 ± 0.11) carbohydrate (71.0 ± 0.18) and energy content (426.08 ± 0.17) of the weaning food blend compare favourably with the control cerelac®. A steady drop in pH with a total increase in titratable acidity was observed during the fermentation of white maize. Lactobacillus and saccharomyces cerevisiae were mostly present during maize fermentation. The weaning food blend met the RDA of infant 0 - 1 year in terms of protein, fat, carbohydrate and energy with a longer shelf life and low microbial activity.

Keywords: Maize; Soybean; Bambaranut

References

  1. Bintu BP., et al. “Studies on the evaluation of the nutritional quality chemical composition and rheological characteristics of a cereal of fortified with legume as a weaning of food blend”. International Journal of Biotechnology and of Food Science1 (2015): 1-9.
  2. Onofiok NO and Nnanyelugo DO. “Weaning foods in West Africa: Nutritional problems and possible solutions The United Nations University”. Food Nutrition Bulletin 11 (1998): 1-13.
  3. Riaz AB and Main N. “Soy applications in food”. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press (2006).
  4. Amankwah EA., et al. “Formulation of weaning food from fermented maize, rice soybean and fish meal (2009).
  5. Oluwole SI. “Protein and haematological evaluations of infant formulated from cooking banana fruits and fermented bambara groundnut”. Nutrition Research and Practice Autumn3 (2008): 165-170.
  6. Onyenuga VA. “Nigerian’s food and feeding stuffs; their chemistry and nutritive value” (2001).
  7. Modu S., et al. “Evaluation of The nutritional value of a composite meal prepared from pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)”. Journal of Applied Sciences 1 (2010): 164-168.
  8. Owusu-Domfeh K., et al. “Nutritive value of some Ghanian feedstuffs”. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 50 (1970): 1-4.
  9. Linnemann AR. “And Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.). A Rev. Abstr. on Tropical Agriculture 12.7 (1987).
  10. Mbata TI., et al. “Nutritional status of maize fermented meal by fortification with bambara-nut”. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 2 (2007): 1-14.
  11. Tsai CYA Dalby and RA Jones. “Lysine and tryptophan increasing during germination of maize seed”. Cereal Chemistry 52 (1975): 356-360.
  12. Asiedu M., et al. “Effect of processing (sprouting and/or fermentation) on sorghum and maize11: Vitamins and amino acid composition. Biological evaluation of maize protein”. Food Chemistry 48 (1993): 201-204.
  13. Price ML., et al. “A critical evaluation of vanillin reaction as an assay for tannin in sorghum grain”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 26 (1978): 1214-1218.
  14. Livingstone AS., et al. “Microbial metabolites in preserving dairy products-an overview”. Journal of Dairying, Foods and Home Sciences 23 (2003): 157-171.
  15. Akingbala JO., et al. “A laboratory procedure for the preparation of Ogi, A Nigerian fermented food”. Journal of Food Science 46 (1981): 1523-1526.
  16. Theodore I., et al. “Nutritional status of maize fermented meal by fortification with Bambara nut”. Ajfand 2 (2007): 44-61.
  17. Association of official and analytical chemist. Official Methods of analysis. Washington DC (2000).
  18. Mohgoub SEO. “Production and evaluation of weaning Foods based on sorghum and legumes plant foods”. HUM Nutrition 54 (1999): 29-42.
  19. Egan H., et al. “Pearson’s chemical analysis of food (5th edition)”. Church-hill Livingstone Edinburgh: London New York (1981): 233.
  20. Harrigan WF and McCaine ME. “Laboratory methods in Food and Dairy microbiology”. Academic Press London, NY, San Francisco (1976).
  21. Inyang CV and Zakari VM. “Effect germination and fermentation of pearl millet on proximate, chemical and sensory properties of instant “fura‟ –A Nigerian cereal”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 1 (2008): 9-12.
  22. Nkama I., et al. “Production composition and consumer acceptability weaning of foods of mixtures of pearl milet cowpea and groundnut”. Journal of Agricultural Science 11 (2001): 165-169.
  23. Mbata TI., et al. “Studies on The microbiological, nutrient composition and anti-nutritional contents of fermented maize flour fortified with Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.)”. African Journal of Food Science6 (2009): 165-171.
  24. Mbata TI., et al. “Evaluation of Mineral content and functional properties of fermented maize (generic and specific) flour blended with bambara groundnut (Vigna substerranean L)”. African Journal of Food Science 4 (2009): 107-112.
  25. Onweluzo JC and Nwabugwu CC. “Development and evaluation of weaning foods from pigeon pea and millet”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (2009): 725-730.
  26. Nout MJR., et al. “Formulation and microbiological safety of cereal based weaning of foods in D.A. Alwick S, Mos and O.g. Schmid (ed) improving young child feeding in Eastern and Southern Africa household level of food technology intrational development research centre (IDRC) Ottawa, Canada (1998): 245-260.
  27. Gernah DI., et al. “Storage and shelf life prediction of food formulations from malted and fermented maize (Zea mays L) of fortified with defatted sesame (Sesamun indiucum L)”. The Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences 1 (2012): 45-54.
  28. Baryeh EA. “Physical properties of bambara-nut”. Journal of Food Engineering 47 (2001): 321-326.
  29. Pawar PA and VP Dhanvijay. “Weaning foods: An overview”. Beverage Food World11 (2007): 27-33.
Citation: Bintu BP., et al. “Studies on the Proximate, pH, Titratable Acidity and Microbial Activity of Maize Fermented Meal Fortified with Soybean and Bambaranut to Produce Infant Weaning Meal” EC Nutrition 15.11 (2020): 59-70.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the January issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for January Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the January issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before January 26, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk