Review Article
Volume 15 Issue 4 - 2020
Taming the Pro-Aging Factors and Pathways for Longevity and Improving Health-span
Vinod Nikhra*
Senior Consultant and Faculty, Department of Medicine, Hindu Rao Hospital and NDMC Medical College, New Delhi, India
*Corresponding Author: Vinod Nikhra, Senior Consultant and Faculty, Department of Medicine, Hindu Rao Hospital and NDMC Medical College, New Delhi, India.
Received: January 07, 2020; Published: March 19, 2020




Abstract

Biology of Aging and Longevity: The unicellular and multicellular organisms, both, age chronologically with their life span representing the average age of the organisms at death. At the cellular level, the chronological aging is mediated in part by ROS generated by mitochondria and attended by loss of mitochondrial function. Aging is, also, a major risk factor for disease-states such as atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, degenerative disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and disorders due to altered cellular physiology and mitosis like cancer.

Identifying Pro-Aging Pathways: There is an established role of IGF-1 and Insulin signaling in the regulation of the life span. Apart from this, the Akt and Ras pathways playing an important role in IGF-1 signaling, appear to regulate aging in mammals. Ras, Akt and Serine/threonine-protein kinase (also known as serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase - Sgk-1, encoded by the SGK1 gene) plays an essential role in cellular functions such as growth and metabolism and may accelerate aging in some tissues and organs.

Proaging and Longevity Mechanisms: There are similarities between the pathways that regulate stress resistance, cellular protection and aging in lower animals like C. elegans, yeast and Drosophila as well as in mammals. Insulin and insulin-like signaling factors regulate survival and lifespan and play a significant role in longevity in various animal species, from nematodes and Drosophila to higher vertebrates. In the regulation of replicative aging, the role of Ras pathway appears to be complex and the Ras and PI3K/Akt pathways are major intracellular mediators of the effect of IGF-1. The Ras pathway activates the RAF/MEK/ERK as well as the SEK/p38 and other pathways through IGF-1, which are associated with various cellular processes like growth, differentiation and apoptosis. 

Dealing with Pro-Aging Factors: Understanding biological basis of the aging process has led to insights that can potentially identify measures to slow down the aging process. The aging, thus, becomes a modifiable risk factor and there are expectant possibilities to extend the lifespan and improve health-span. Through targeted lifestyle changes and potentially effective interventions through nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, it is possible to reduce the age-related chronic and debilitating morbidities and improve the health-span.

Keywords: Akt Pathway; FOXO; Health Span; IGF-1 Signaling; Insulin Signaling; Lifespan; Longevity; mTOR Signaling; Nutraceuticals; Ras Pathway; Sirtuins

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Citation: Vinod Nikhra. “Taming the Pro-Aging Factors and Pathways for Longevity and Improving Health-span”. EC Nutrition 15.4 (2020): 21-36.

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