Research Article
Volume 4 Issue 7 - 2022
Factors Associated with Hygiene and Sanitation Practices among Adults in Muhanga District, Rwanda

Marie Grace Umunezero* and Solange Nikwigize

Department of Public Health, Mount Kenya University Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda
*Corresponding Author: Marie Grace Umunezero, Department of Public Health, Mount Kenya University Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
Received: March 22, 2022; Published: June 28, 2022


By 2030, the world's population will have increased from 7.6 billion to 8.6 billion, and by 2050, it will have increased to 9.8 billion. Such rapid expansion would exacerbate the already rising demand for water, sanitation, and hygiene-related facilities and services, particularly among low-income households. The general objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with hygiene and sanitation practices among adults in Muhanga District. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in four rural sectors of Muhanga. A sample size of 380 households (male and female aged above 21 years old) were selected from the total of 32,618 households by using Rao-soft formula. Multistage and convenience sampling techniques was used, the structured questionnaires were administered and SPSS version 21 used for data analysis. The study has been shown that the majorities 75.5% of the respondents were married and the study findings show that prevalence of practice level and found out that the majority 66.3% of the respondents had good practice towards water, hygiene and sanitation. This study shown that the majority 68.7% of the respondents were getting water from source of fountain. The respondents who lived in urban were more likely to have good practice [AOR = 7.517, 95%CI: 2.706 - 20.881; P = < 0.001] compared to those who lived in rural area. It concluded that the lifestyle people living in was a factor which had much contribution to hygiene and sanitation practices among adults in Muhanga District.


Keywords: Hygiene; Sanitation Practices; Muhanga District


  1. World Health Organization (WHO). “Hygiene: Overview” (2020).
  2. Hutton G and Chase C. “The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health6 (2016): 536.
  3. UNICEF&WHO. “Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water. 2018 Update”. Geneva: World Health Organization (2018).
  4. , et al. “Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low‐and middle‐income settings”. London, UK: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (2014).
  5. Usman MA., et al. “Determinants of household drinking water quality in rural Ethiopia, ZEF Discussion Papers on Development Policy, No. 220”. University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF), Bonn (2019).
  6. , et al. “Assessing the impact of a school-based water treatment, hygiene and sanitation programme on pupil absence in Gasabo District, Rwanda” (2020).
  7. Bartram JB. “Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health8 (2014): 8137-8165.
  8. National Strategy for Transformation (NST1)/Seven Year Government Programme (7YGP). Kigali: Office of the Prime Minister & Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (2017).
  9. Kamayirese G. Republic of Rwanda Ministry of Infrastructure National Sanitation Policy (2018).
  10. Government of Rwanda. Rwanda Voluntary National Review (VNR) Report. 1-109 (2019).
  11. Kamayirese G. Republic of Rwanda Ministry of Infrastructure National Sanitation Policy (2016).
  12. NISR&RPHC4. “Population Projections”. Kigali: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (2017).
  13. Theoneste N., et al. “Status of water, Hygiene and Sanitation Practice in Southern Rwanda”. Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Science1 (2020): 40-48.
  14. Oswald WE SA. “Association of community sanitation usage with soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-aged children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia”. Parasites and Vectors 1 (2017): 91.
  15. Farah S., et al. “Knowledge and practice of personal hygiene and sanitation: a study in selected slums of Dhaka city”. Delta Medical College Journal2 (2015): 68.
  16. Aime T and Pamella A. “Critical Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Challenges in Rwanda”. Published by the Centre for global Development, University of Aberdeen, Working paper, Sanitation (2018).
  17. “Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey: Thematic report- Utilities and amenities 2016”. Republic of Rwanda: Kigali (2016).
  18. Elias C and Nyanza OJS. “Access and utilization of water and sanitation facilities and their determinants among pastoralists in the rural areas of norther Tanzania”. Tanzania Journal of Health Research1 (2018).
Citation: Marie Grace Umunezero and Solange Nikwigize. “Factors Associated with Hygiene and Sanitation Practices among Adults in Muhanga District, Rwanda”. EC Nursing and Healthcare 4.7 (2022): 26-38.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 19, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.