Review Article
Volume 3 Issue 5 - 2021
Monoclonal Antibodies as Drugs for Covid-19 and Public Health Impacts: A Review
Ozurumba-Dwight LN1*, Ogbonna CS2 and Enwere OO3
1Health Science, Walden University, Minnesota, United States
2Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Thunder Bay ON and College of Physicians and Surgeons CPSO Ontario, Canada
3Department of Internal Medicine, Imo State University Teaching Hospital and Medical College, Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Ozurumba-Dwight LN, Health Science, Walden University, Minnesota, United States.
Received: January 21, 2021; Published: April 30, 2021




Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a pandemic that blew and ravaged across the various global continents, starting in 2019. Over 71.4 million people have been infected globally, with more than 1.6 million deaths. It is sad to opine that in the United States, over 16 million infections have been recorded with over 290,000 lives lost to the pandemic. The risks have been high in high density cities, communities, among those aged above 65 years and persons with co-morbid clinical conditions. Where population is high, it provided easier means for spread and containment has been most tasking in such cities.

The burden inflicted on man has been huge across families, homes and small-medium-large scale firms. As such, the search for curative drugs and vaccines started. Funds support have come from various sources in the direction of preventive measures (use of face and nose masks, lockdowns with palliative support for some citizens, social distancing and hand washing among others), drugs (attempted use of non-immunotherapeutic and now use of immuno-therapeutic monoclonal antibody drugs) and vaccines. The first monoclonal antibody was approved by the United State Food and Drug Administration Department (US FDA) in 1986. Present monoclonal antibody drugs (mAbs) have proved effective with fewer side effects due to their high level of specificity.

With over 75 mAbs approved by the US FDA and engaged against several stubborn ailments, design and development of mAbs against COVID-19 have now followed for treatment of stubborn diseases. The mechanisms of action of majority of these immune-therapeutic antibodies used to treat COVID-19 patients has been by their being used to target the receptor binding protein domain (RBD) of SARSCoV-2 and block it from binding on to the receptor Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) on the human body cell, to prevent entry of SARCoV-2 virus into the human cell and halt its commencement of life in the human cells and associated pathologies.

For instance, the monoclonal antibody drug named Bamlanivimab and later Casirivumab-Imdemivab mAbs combination drug, both approved under Emergency use authorization (EUA) by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), have been used to successfully treat COVID-19 patients in mild to moderate clinical conditions not requiring oxygen therapy with good level of success. Recently, a neutralizing antibody named AR-711 was found to clear signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters even when it was administered at what was considered to be low levels. There are other clinical trials ongoing with other developed mAb products against COVID-19 by other leading drug research and production firms and institutional researchers but mostly from the developed nations.

These mAb drugs help check progression of infection, associated pathology in mild to moderately ill COVID-19 patients, keep patients in stable conditions to help reduce the rate of hospitalization, reducing the number of frontline workers put at risk and who are needed to manage COVID-19 patients, in Health care systems (including that of the United States), many of which are currently overstretched at this period of COVID-19 pandemic.

Now that some level of support from curative and preventive medicine are coming in through first set of vaccines breakthrough with EUA back up, by leading Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology firms and institutions in The United States and Europe (with over 90% vaccine efficacy and good safety levels and in one about 70% efficacy as reported from outcome of Phase three clinical trials), these therapeutic vaccines can now support urgent emerging responses with antibody clinical treatment. This will now couple ongoing preventive measures for an integrated Public health fight back against the dreaded SARS-CoV-2 virus and burden from its COVID-19 handbag disease.

Keywords: Monoclonal; Antibody; Neutralizing; ACE Receptor; RBD Protein; Preventive; Public Health

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Citation: Ozurumba-Dwight LN., et al. “Monoclonal Antibodies as Drugs for Covid-19 and Public Health Impacts: A Review”. EC Nursing and Healthcare 3.5 (2021): 18-25.

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