Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 3 - 2021
Sensor Based Prevention of Pressure Ulcers: Weight Offloading Detection and Prompting Mechanism Verification
Arshia A Khan1*, Yumna Anwar1, Nam Phung1, Dale Dowling1 and Rana Imtiaz2
1University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN, USA
2University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
*Corresponding Author: Arshia A Khan, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN, USA.
Received: December 07, 2020; Published: February 10, 2021




Abstract

Spinal cord Injury can have a debilitating and traumatic effect on affected individuals. The impact is far reaching, including emotional, physical, economic, and social. This impact is not only on the affected individuals, but also their family members, caregivers and the society as well. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was found to be 33.9% in patients with quadriplegia, 47.4% in patients with paraplegia, and 9.6% in patients who had hemiplegia. Pressure ulcers are a debilitating and undesirable complication of traumatic spinal cord injury, that can be prevented using wearable sensors and mobile devices. Weight offloading is one of the recommended solutions to prevent pressure ulcers. Our team designed and developed a mobile application that was tied to a pressure sensor mat, used to track and monitor weight offloading. Our sensor-based system was designed to measure two outcomes - one, verify weight offloading and two- to investigate if prompting an individual can help them remember to weight offload. Our analysis showed that most patients remember to perform weight offloading exercises with initial assistance of technology. We designed a new threshold-based algorithm for our sensor-based system to detect weight offload called COMpredict. The prediction accuracies of the algorithm are relatively high with approximately 90% of accuracy for most weight shifting tests and 70.49% for wheelchair push up test.

 

Keywords: Sensors; Spinal Cord Injury; Trauma; Pressure Ulcers; Weight Shifting; Prompting; Prevention of Pressure Ulcers; Mobile App

References

    1. Kumar S., et al. “Mouse Model of Pressure Ulcers After Spinal Cord Injury”. Journal of Visualized Experiments 145 (2019).
    2. Pollack DA and Brotto M. “Literature Review: Combining Interface Pressure Measurements with an Air Cushion to Prevent Pressure Ulcers” (2019).
    3. Khan AA., et al. “Wireless solution to prevent decubitus ulcers: Preventive weight shifting guide, monitor, and tracker app for wheel chair users with spinal cord injuries (phase II)”. In 2016 IEEE 18th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom) (2016): 1-6.
    4. Cowan LJ., et al. “Pressure Ulcer Prevalence by Level of Paralysis in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury in Long-term Care”. Advances in Skin and Wound Care3 (2019): 122-130.
    5. Badhiwala JH., et al. “Global burden of traumatic brain and spinal cord injury”. The Lancet Neurology1 (2019): 24-25.
    6. De Melo-Neto, J. S., et al. “Spinal cord injury in elderly patients admitted to a tertiary hospital”. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 4 (2017): 929-936.
    7. Romanelli M., et al. “Science and practice of pressure ulcer management Springer-Verlag London Limited (2006): 67-73.
    8. org. “Skin Breakdown, Pressure Ulcer Prevention With SCI-RRTC” (2015).
    9. Gefen A. “The future of pressure ulcer prevention is here: detecting and targeting inflammation early”. EWMA Journal2 (2018).
    10. Roberts S., et al. “Nutritional intakes of patients at risk of pressure ulcers in the clinical setting”. Nutrition 7-8 (2014): 841-846.
    11. Lyder CH., et al. “Quality of care for hospitalized Medicare patients at risk for pressure ulcers”. Archives of Internal Medicine12 (2001): 1549-1554.
    12. Brienza D., et al. “A randomized clinical trial on preventing pressure ulcers with wheelchair seat cushions”. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society12 (2010): 2308-2314.
    13. McInnes E., et al. “Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 9 (2015): CD001735.
    14. Vos-Draper TL and Morrow MM. “Seating-related pressure injury prevention in spinal cord injury: a review of compensatory technologies to improve in-seat movement behavior”. Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports4 (2016): 320-328.
    15. Chenu O., et al. “Texi Care: An innovative embedded device for pressure ulcer prevention. Preliminary results with a paraplegic volunteer”. Journal of Tissue Viability 3 (2013): 83-90.
    16. Verbunt M and Bartneck C. “Sensing senses: Tactile feedback for the prevention of decubitus ulcers”. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback3 (2010): 243-250.
    17. Khan A and Phung N. “Undergraduate Research in Assistive Technology: Design and Development of a Preventive Weight Shifting App to Reduce the Risk of Pressure Ulcers in Wheelchair Bound Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries (Phase 1)”. Journal of Medical Devices2 (2016): 020927.
    18. Nageswaran S., et al. “Design Evaluation of an Automated Bed for Early Detection and Prevention of Decubitus Ulcers in Nonambulatory Patients”. Journal of Medical Devices2 (2014): 020925.
    19. Arias S., et al. “Effects on interface pressure and tissue oxygenation under ischial tuberosities during the application of an alternating cushion”. Journal of Tissue Viability3 (2015): 91-101.
Citation: Arshia A Khan., et al. “Sensor Based Prevention of Pressure Ulcers: Weight Offloading Detection and Prompting Mechanism Verification”. EC Nursing and Healthcare 3.3 (2021): 116-125.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 26, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk