Research Article
Volume 2 Issue 11 - 2020
Lifestyle Modifications Can Suppress Non-Communicable Diseases in the Iranian Men Elderly
Mehdi Kushkestani*, Mohsen Parvani, Sohrab Rezaei and Kiandokht Moradi
M.Sc. Student of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Mehdi Kushkestani, M.Sc. Student of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.
Received: September 12, 2020; Published: October 09, 2020




Abstract

Background and Purpose: Aging is the predominant risk factor for most diseases and situations that restrict the health span. The aim of this study was to investigate of association between physical activity levels and nutritional status with various diseases and the use of medications. 

Material and Method: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran in 2019 with 422 Community-dwelling elderly men who participated, voluntarily. Health condition, level of physical activity, and nutritional status were measured using medical history, PASE, and MNA questionnaires, respectively.

Results: there was a significant negative relationship between physical activity with cardiovascular diseases (p < 0.04) and comorbidity (p < 0.034). Besides, MNA score was significantly negatively correlated with cardiovascular diseases (p < 0.029), liver diseases (p < 0.000), chronic kidney diseases (p < 0.015), comorbidity (p < 0.000), fat-lowering drugs (p < 0.001), and multiple medication (p < 0.017).

Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the level of physical activity and food dietary can be used as safe and cost-effective solutions to prevent various diseases and polypharmacy in the elderly.

Keywords: Diet; Exercise; Aging; Diseases; T2DM; Pharmacy; Physical Activity

References

  1. Kirkwood TB. “Understanding the odd science of aging”. Cell 4 (2005): 437-447.
  2. Desa U. “United nations department of economic and social affairs, population division”. world population prospects: The 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables. Technical Report: Working Paper No ESA/P/WP 241 (2015).
  3. Farajzadeh M., et al. “Health related quality of life in Iranian elderly citizens: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery 2 (2017): 100.
  4. Franceschi C., et al. “The continuum of aging and age-related diseases: common mechanisms but different rates”. Frontiers in Medicine 5 (2018): 61.
  5. Mehdi Kushkestani MP., et al. “The Evaluation of Differences on Geriatric Syndromes between Active and Sedentary Elderly”. Journal of Sports Science 2 (2020): 56-66.
  6. MacNee W., et al. “Ageing and the border between health and disease”. European Respiratory Society (2014).
  7. Tartibian B., et al. “Relationship between the Level of Physical Activity and Nutritional Status with Fatigue in Elderly Residents of Rest Homes in Tehran” 1 (2020): 155-168.
  8. Gong JB., et al. “Epidemiology of chronic noncommunicable diseases and evaluation of life quality in elderly”. Aging Medicine1 (2018): 64-66.
  9. Organization WH. “Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks: World Health Organization (2009).
  10. Tabrizi JS., et al. “Prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in Iranian population: life style promotion project phase II: study protocol”. Iranian Journal of Public Health9 (2018): 1397.
  11. Forouzanfar MH., et al. “Evaluating causes of death and morbidity in Iran, global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors study 2010”. Archives of Iranian Medicine5 (2014).
  12. Kushkestani M., et al. “The Relationship Between the Level of Physical Activity and Dementia in Elderly Residents of Nursing Homes in Tehran (2020).
  13. Kushkestani M., et al. “The Physical Activity and Fall Risk Among Iranian Older Male Adults”. The Open Nursing Journal 14 (2020): 159-167.
  14. Kushkestani M., et al. “Physical Activity is a Preventive Factor Against SARS- COV-2 in Healthy Subjects (Possible Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms) (2020): 29.
  15. Mehdi Kushkestani MP., et al. “Lipid Profile and Hepatic Enzymes Differences between Pre-diabetes and Normal Staff”. Journal of Sports Science2 (2020): 67-75.
  16. Kushkestani M., et al. “The relationship between drug use, sleep quality and quality of life in dormitory students at Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran”. Population Medicine (2020): 2.
  17. Kushkestani M., et al. “Investigating the cognitive function of the elderly and related factors in nursing homes in Tehran in 2019 (2020).
  18. Mehdi Kushkestani MP., et al. “The Relationship between Anthropometric Indices and Lipid Profiles In-Office Employees”. Journal of Sports Science2 (2020): 76-82.
  19. Mandil AM., et al. “Physical activity and major non-communicable diseases among physicians in Central Saudi Arabia”. Saudi Medical Journal11 (2016): 1243.
  20. Sheikholeslami S., et al. “The impact of physical activity on non-communicable diseases: Findings from 20 years of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study”. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism4 (2018).
  21. Ding D., et al. “The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases”. Lancet (2016).
  22. Evans C. “Malnutrition in the elderly: a multifactorial failure to thrive”. The Permanente Journal 3 (2005): 38.
  23. Kushkestani M., et al. “Malnutrition is Associated with Cognitive Function, Tiredness and Sleep Quality in Elderly Living Nursing Home”. Journal of Aging Science (2020): 8.
  24. Saunders J and Smith T. “Malnutrition: causes and consequences”. Clinical Medicine 6 (2010): 624.
  25. Stratton RJ., et al. “Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’ predicts mortality and length of hospital stay in acutely ill elderly”. British Journal of Nutrition 2 (2006): 325-330.
  26. Kushkestani M MM., et al. “Physical Activity as a Preventive Factor to Aging-Related Physical Dysfunction in Iranian Community-Dwelling Elderly”. Journal of Aging Science (2020): 8.
  27. Kushkestani M PM., et al. “Investigation of Life Expectancy in Community-Dwelling Elderly Men in Iran And Its Related Factors”. Journal of Aging Science (2020): 8.
  28. Kushkestani M., et al. “The Relationship between Body Composition with Blood Pressure and Sleep Quality in Male Dormitory Student at Allameh Tabataba'i University”. New Approaches in Sport Sciences 1 (2019): 77-92.
  29. Ishaghi R., et al. “Effect of faith-based education on physical activity on the elderly”. Iranian Journal of Medical Education5 (2011): 1281-1288.
  30. Ghazi L., et al. “Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is rather a reliable and valid instrument to assess nutritional status in Iranian healthy adults and elderly with a chronic disease”. Ecology of Food and Nutrition4 (2015): 342-357.
  31. Suzman R and Beard J. “Global health and aging: preface”. National Institute on Aging Website (2015).
  32. Nikolova R., et al. “Transitions in the functional status of disabled community-living older adults over a 3-year follow-up period”. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics1 (2011): 12-17.
  33. Freedman VA., et al. “Declines in late-life disability: the role of early-and mid-life factors”. Social Science and Medicine7 (2008): 1588-1602.
  34. Martin LG., et al. “Trends and inequalities in late-life health and functioning in England”. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 10 (2012): 874-880.
  35. Taylor MG. “Capturing transitions and trajectories: The role of socioeconomic status in later life disability”. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences6 (2010): 733-743.
  36. Chen H and Hu H. “The relationship and mechanism between education and functional health status transition among older persons in China”. BMC Geriatrics1 (2018): 89.
  37. Lin C-F., et al. “Polypharmacy, aging and potential drug-drug interactions in outpatients in Taiwan”. Drugs and Aging3 (2011): 219-225.
  38. Leelakanok N., et al. “Association between polypharmacy and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association6 (2017): 729-738.
  39. Diederichs C., et al. “The measurement of multiple chronic diseases-a systematic review on existing multimorbidity indices”. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences3 (2011): 301-311.
  40. Agborsangaya CB., et al. “Multimorbidity prevalence in the general population: the role of obesity in chronic disease clustering”. BMC Public Health1 (2013): 1161.
  41. Yusuf S., et al. “Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27 000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study”. The Lancet9497 (2005): 1640-1649.
  42. Nakamura K., et al. “Adipokines: a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease”. Journal of Cardiology4 (2014): 250-259.
  43. Hossain P., et al. “Obesity and diabetes in the developing world-a growing challenge”. New England Journal of Medicine3 (2007): 213-215.
  44. Felson DT., et al. “Obesity and knee osteoarthritis: the Framingham Study”. Annals of Internal Medicine1 (1988): 18-24.
  45. Cicuttini FM., et al. “The association of obesity with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in women: a twin study”. The Journal of Rheumatology 7 (1996): 1221-1226.
  46. Carman WJ., et al. “Obesity as a risk factor for osteoarthritis of the hand and wrist: a prospective study”. American Journal of Epidemiology2 (1994): 119-129.
  47. Davis Ma., et al. “Body fat distribution and osteoarthritis”. American Journal of Epidemiology4 (1990): 701-707.
  48. Sharma L., et al. “The mechanism of the effect of obesity in knee osteoarthritis: the mediating role of malalignment”. Arthritis and Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology3 (2000): 568-575.
  49. Martens E., et al. “Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance”. Clinical Nutrition5 (2015): 968-975.
  50. Orang Z., et al. “Malnutrition and anthropometric measurements among elderly people with cardiovascular diseases”. The Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences6 (2018): 54-46.
  51. Baumgartner RN., et al. “Predictors of skeletal muscle mass in elderly men and women”. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development2 (1999): 123-136.
  52. Kim Y., et al. “Independent and joint associations of grip strength and adiposity with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in 403,199 adults: the UK Biobank study”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition3 (2017): 773-782.
  53. Ignarro LJ., et al. “Nutrition, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease: an update”. Cardiovascular Research2 (2007): 326-340.
  54. Purnak T and Yilmaz Y. “Liver disease and malnutrition”. Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology4 (2013): 619-629.
  55. Yilmaz Y. “Is non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease a spectrum, or are steatosis and non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis distinct conditions?” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics9 (2012): 815-823.
  56. Luyckx VA and Brenner BM. “Birth weight, malnutrition and kidney-associated outcomes-a global concern”. Nature Reviews Nephrology3 (2015): 135.
  57. Rodrigues J., et al. “Nutritional assessment of elderly patients on dialysis: pitfalls and potentials for practice”. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation11 (2017): 1780-1789.
  58. Archer E and Blair SN. “Physical activity and the prevention of cardiovascular disease: from evolution to epidemiology”. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases6 (2011): 387-396.
  59. Liguori I., et al. “Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases”. Clinical Interventions in Aging 13 (2018): 757.
  60. Brummel NE., et al. “Frailty and subsequent disability and mortality among patients with critical illness”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine1 (2017): 64-72.
Citation: Mehdi Kushkestani., et al. “Lifestyle Modifications Can Suppress Non-Communicable Diseases in the Iranian Men Elderly”. EC Nursing and Healthcare 2.11 (2020): 45-57.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


October Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the October issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for November Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the November issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before October 31, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk