Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 8 - 2018
Brain Tumor Molecular Pathways: The Most Important Examples and their Treatment
Enrico Affonso Barletta1*, André Almeida e Silva2, César Luiz Bertonha2, Tiago Fernandes Gonçales3, Telmo Augusto Barba Belsuzarri4,5
1Medicine Student, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
2Neurosurgery Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas - Neurosurgeon, Campinas, Brazil
3Neurosurgery Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas - Neurosurgery Resident, Campinas, Brazil
4Neurosurgery Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas - Neurosurgeon and Post-Graduation at the State Server Hospital (IAMSPE), Campinas, Brazil
5Post-Graduation Program, Masters in Health Sciences, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Brazil
*Corresponding Author: Enrico Affonso Barletta, Medicine Student, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
Received: July 14, 2018; Published: July 30, 2018
Citation: Enrico Affonso Barletta., et al. “Brain Tumor Molecular Pathways: The Most Important Examples and their Treatment”. EC Neurology 10.8 (2018): 794-801.
Abstract
The stem cells of a tumor lead to their various lesion and presentations. That’s the importance of studying the tumor heterogeneity. The Glioblastoma Multiform (GBM) is the most aggressive and the most common brain tumor in adults. The surface markers of the tumor stem cells can be similar to the normal stem cells, such as the CD133, Nestin, Musashi, and Sox2. The GBM stem cells promote angiogenesis through the release of growth factors pro-angiogenic, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Tumors that present CD133 as a surface marker are more likely to present necrosis and hemorrhage. Hypoxic areas usually express an increased resistance of the tumor and higher production rates of the CD133. Hypoxia is a stimulus for an increase production of VEGF. In the GBM the hypoxia inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) is overexpressed, this determines an increase on the expression of CD133. The Notch proteins signalization regulates the progression of the tumor and the differentiation of the stem cells. Tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways are stimulated by cytokines and growth factors, like the epidermal and the fibroblasts growth factors and those pathways are directly correlated to the tumor degree. The sonic hedgehog protein is overactivated on GBM. The inflammation contributes and participates of the tumor development. The MB represents most of the brain tumors on children. The Notch protein, Sonic hedgehog and WNT proteins contribute for the establishment of the formation pathways of the MB. The most important treatments are also discussed in this article as well as new options.
Keywords: Brain Tumor; Heterogeneity; Epigenetic; Glioma and Stem Cells
Copyright: © 2018 Enrico Affonso Barletta., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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