Perspective
Volume 12 Issue 1 - 2020
Mapping the Past, Present, and Future of Brain Research to Navigate Directions, Dangers, and Discourses of Dual-Use
Joseph DeFranco1 and James Giordano2*
1Neuroscience and Biodefense Studies Program, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
2Departments of Neurology and Biochemistry, Neuroethics Studies Program, and Sub-program in Military Medical Ethics, Pellegrino Center for Clinical Bioethics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
*Corresponding Author:James Giordano, Professor, Departments of Neurology and Biochemistry, and Neuroethics Studies Program, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.
Received: December 02, 2019; Published: December 16, 2019




Keywords: Neuroscience; Neurotechnology; Dual-Use Research of Concern; Bioweapons; Neuroweapons; Translation; Neuroethics

Tracking and evaluating prior publications of any scientific or technological field is essential to defining current trends, identifying and analyzing gaps in research methods, results and/or foci, and anticipating future research trajectories. Although neuroscience and neurotechnology (neuroS/T) have evolved from the nascent investigations of the early- to mid-twentieth century, recent developments in tools and techniques have fostered something of a renaissance of inquiry and innovation in the brain sciences. Understanding research trends, limitations, and directions is important to (1) assess contemporary knowledge and guide employment of extant and emerging technologies; (2) facilitate research translation from “bench-to-bedside”; (3) incorporate the most current information to the education and training of scientists; (4) inform relevant stake- and share-holders in professional and public domains; and (5) advise policymakers and research funding entities.

Arguably, benevolent intents are the motivating force propelling the vast majority of neuroS/T research. Yet, defining “the good” can - and often does - entail an examination of the needs, values, and philosophies of the agents and actors involved in any enterprise; and the brain sciences are no exception. The increasingly multi-national interest, investments, and engagement in brain science foster a culturally diverse palette that contributes varying views on what constitutes the relative “right” and “good” conduct and applications of research [1]. The capabilities of neuroS/T to assess and affect cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functions, while primarily directed toward medical aims, also prompt consideration, viability, and use for altering the performance of lifestyle and occupational activities, inclusive of those relevant to military, intelligence, and security operations. Indeed, there has been - and remains - interest, and increasing pursuit of dualand/ or direct-use of the brain sciences to optimize the performance of military personnel and to control and/or degrade neurobehavioral abilities and health of targeted adversaries [2].

References

  1. Garden Hermann and David Winickoff. "Issues in neurotechnology governance". OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, No. 2018/11, OECD Publishing, Paris (2018).
  2. DeFranco J., et al. "Emerging technologies for disruptive effects in non-kinetic engagements”. Journal of the Homeland Defense and Security Information Analysis Center 6.2 (2019).
  3. Koblentz Gregory D. “Living weapons: Biological warfare and international security”. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press (2011).
  4. Tucker Jonathan B. "Biological threat assessment: is the cure worse than the disease?” Arms Control Today 34.8 (2004): 13-19.
  5. Miller Judith., et al. "US germ warfare research pushes treaty limits”. New York Times (2001). 
  6. Tucker Jonathan B. "Seeking biosecurity without verification: The new US strategy on biothreats”. Arms Control Today 40.1 (2010): 8-14.
  7. DeFranco J and Giordano J. “Designer Genes: Made in China?” Mad Scientist Laboratory Post #166 (2019). 
  8. Kolata Gina., et al. "Chinese scientist claims to use CRISPR to make first genetically edited babies”. The New York Times (2018). 
  9. Watanabe Sumiyo., et al. "In vivo rendezvous of small nucleic acid drugs with charge-matched block catiomers to target cancers”. Nature Communications 10.1 (2019): 1894.
  10. Ma Yuqian., et al. "Mammalian near-infrared image vision through injectable and self-powered retinal nanoantennae”. Cell 177.2 (2019): 243-255.
  11. Vetere Gisella., et al. "Memory formation in the absence of experience”. Nature Neuroscience 22.6 (2019): 933.
  12. Chen Briana K., et al. "Artificially enhancing and suppressing hippocampus-mediated memories”. Current Biology 29.11 (2019): 1885-1894.
  13. Shi Lei., et al. "Transgenic rhesus monkeys carrying the human MCPH1 gene copies show human-like neoteny of brain development”. National Science Review 6.3 (2019): 480-493.
  14. Yeung Andy Wai Kan., et al. "The changing landscape of neuroscience research, 2006-2015: a bibliometric study”. Frontiers in Neuroscience 11 (2017): 120.
  15. Tennison Michael N and Jonathan D Moreno. "Neuroscience, ethics, and national security: the state of the art”. PLoS Biology 10.3 (2012): e1001289.
  16. Wurzman Rachel and James Giordano. "“NEURINT” and neuroweapons: Neurotechnologies in national intelligence and defense”. Neurotechnology in national security and defense: Practical considerations, neuroethcal concerns, ed. James Giordano. Boca Raton: CRC Press (2014): 104-139.
  17. Dando Malcolm. “Neuroscience and the future of chemical-biological weapons”. Springer (2015).
  18. Chen Celeste., et al. “Biotechnology, commercial veiling, and implications for strategic latency: the exemplar of neuroscience and neurotechnology research and development in China”. In Strategic latency: Red, white and blue, ed. Zachary Davis. Livermore CA: Lawrence Livermore Press (2017): 12-32.
  19. Brindley Timothy and DJ Giordano. "International standards for intellectual property protection of neuroscience and neurotechnology: neuroethical legal and social (NELS) considerations in light of globalization”. Stanford Journal of Law and Science Policy SJLSP 7 (2014): 33.
  20. Kandel Eric R., et al. "Neuroscience thinks big (and collaboratively)”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14.9 (2013): 659.
  21. Giordano James and Kathinka Evers. "Dual Use in Neuroscientific and Neurotechnological Research: A Need for Ethical Address and Guidance”. Ethics and Integrity in Health and Life Sciences Research. Emerald Publishing Limited (2018): 129-145.
  22. Ouagrham-Gormley Sonia Ben. “Barriers to Bioweapons: The Challenges of Expertise and Organization for Weapons Development”. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press (2014).
  23. Giordano J. “The neuroweapons threat”. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 72.3 (2016): 1-4.
  24. Moreno Jonathan D., et al. “Security threats versus aggregated truths: Ethical issues in the use of neuroscience and neurotechnology for national security”. In: Illes, Judy, ed. Neuroethics: Anticipating the future. NY: Oxford University Press (2017).
  25. Palchik Guillermo., et al. "Monkey business? Development, influence, and ethics of potentially dual-use brain science on the world stage”. Neuroethics 11.1 (2018): 111-114.
  26. Shook John R and James Giordano. "Ethics transplants? Addressing the risks and benefits of guiding international biomedicine”. AJOB Neuroscience 8.4 (2017): 230-232.
  27. Lanzilao Elisabetta.,. "Advancing neuroscience on the 21st -century world stage: The need for and a proposed structure of an internationally relevant neuroethics”. Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal 4.3 (2013).
Citation: Joseph DeFranco and James Giordano. “Mapping the Past, Present, and Future of Brain Research to Navigate Directions, Dangers, and Discourses of Dual-Use”. EC Neurology 12.1 (2020): 01-06.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for September Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the September issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 15, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk