Review Article
Volume 14 Issue 4 - 2022
Neuronal Mechanisms and Treatment Approaches to Emotional and Physical Pain

Rashad Roberson1, Nicholas A Kerna2,3*, John V Flores4,5, Sudeep Chawla6, Stephen M Brown7, Joseph Anderson II8, Hilary M Holets4,5, ND Victor Carsrud9, Uzoamaka Nwokorie10 and Kevin D Pruitt11,12

1Georgetown American University, College of Medicine, Guyana
2SMC-Medical Research, Thailand
3First InterHealth Group, Thailand
4Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
5Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
6Chawla Health & Research, USA
7International University of Health Sciences, St. Kitts
8International Institute of Original Medicine, USA
9Lakeline Wellness Center, USA
10University of Washington, USA
11Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
12PBJ Medical Associates, LLC, USA

*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500. Contact: medpublab+drkerna@gmail.com.
Received: February 12, 2022; Published: March 30, 2022




Abstract

The feeling of pain encompasses a range of mental and physical states, sharing the scale of mild annoyance to debilitation. Pain is the most common symptom reported to health care professionals. Psychological pain results from negative emotions induced by any feeling of loss. Physical pain is an aversive state that originates from an injury or disease. Pain is a complex and bio-psycho-social phenomenon, arising from interactions of anatomical and chemical systems of neural networks and involving several cognitive processes. Medicine still regards pain as a symptom of physical injury, despite evidence of many people suffering from psychologicalbased pain. The concept of pain requires broadening and inclusion to accommodate the basic science of pain originating from various sources, that is, physical and psychological. Research on emotional psychology and pain has proliferated in many aspects with overlapping and non-linear networks. Psychology could be an essential contributor to understanding and depicting chronic pain treatment approaches, as psychological illness and pain are viewed as a reciprocal relationship that involves the expression of the disease and the pain that showcases specific effects on the behavior and emotional state. Persistent pain is complex, with emotions only scaling as a contributing factor supported by anecdotal evidence with the frequent association. Other factors such as genetic, environmental, contingencies, placebo, and cognition also play an essential role in studying the aspect. This review provides an overview of chronic and emotional pain and its underlying neuronal mechanisms and treatment approaches.

Keywords: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy; Depression; Inflammation; Limbic System; Sickle Cell Disease; Osteoarthritis; Prostaglandins

References

  1. Lumley MA., et al. “Pain and Emotion: A Biopsychosocial Review of Recent Research”. Journal of Clinical Psychology9 (2011): 942-968. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21647882/
  2. IM SW., et al. “Gunshot Wounds and Other Injuries of Nerves”. Lippincott. New York (1864).
  3. Sudeck P. “Über die akute (reflektorische) Knochenatrophie nach Entzündungen und Verletzungen in den Extremitäten und ihre klinischen Erscheinungen”. Fortschr Röntgenstr 5 (1901): 227-293.
  4. J A Evans. “Reflex sympathetic dystrophy”. Surgical Clinics of North America 26 (1946): 780-790. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20988032/
  5. Edwin S Shneidman. “The Suicidal Mind”. Oxford University Press, New York (1996).
  6. Sandler J. “Psychology and psychoanalysis”. British Journal of Medical Psychology2 (1962): 91-100. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14496864/
  7. Bakan D. “Disease, Pain, and Sacrifice”. Chicago: University of Chicago P (1968).
  8. Baumeister RF. “Suicide as an escape from self”. Psychological Review1 (1990): 90-113. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2408091/
  9. Melzack R and Casey KL. “Sensory, motivational, and central control determinants of pain: a new conceptual model”. The Skin Senses 1 (1968): 423-439. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233801589_Sensory_Motivational_and_Central_Control_Determinants_of_Pain
  10. Ploner M., et al. “Pain affect without pain sensation in a patient with a postcentral lesion”. Pain 1-2 (1999): 211-214. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10353510/
  11. Kulkarni B., et al. “Attention to pain localization and unpleasantness discriminates the functions of the medial and lateral pain systems”. The European Journal of Neuroscience11 (2005): 3133-3142. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15978022/
  12. Conejero I., et al. “Psychological Pain, Depression, and Suicide: Recent Evidences and Future Directions”. Current Psychiatry Reports5 (2018): 33. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29623441/
  13. Pellegrini S., et al. “Scaling relative incentive value: Different adjustments to incentive downshift in pigeons and rats”. Behavioural Processes 3 (2008): 182-188. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0376635708001873
  14. Papini MR., et al. “Behavioral neuroscience of psychological pain”. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 48 (2015): 53-69. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25446953/
  15. Fayaz A., et al. “Prevalence of chronic pain in the UK: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population studies”. BMJ Open6 (2016): e010364. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27324708/
  16. Turk DC and Rudy TE. “Toward an Empirically Derived Taxonomy of Chronic Pain Patients: Integration of Psychological Assessment Data”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology2 (1988): 233-238. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3372831/
  17. Tracey I and Bushnell MC. “How neuroimaging studies have challenged us to rethink: is chronic pain a disease?” The Journal of Pain11 (2009): 1113-1120. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19878862/
  18. Ji RR., et al. “Neuroinflammation and central sensitization in chronic and widespread pain”. Anesthesiology2 (2018): 343-366. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29462012/
  19. Gold MS and Gebhart GF. “Nociceptor sensitization in pain pathogenesis”. Nature Medicine11 (2010): 1248-1257. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20948530/
  20. Basbaum AI., et al. “Cellular and molecular mechanisms of pain”. Cell2 (2009): 267-284. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19837031/
  21. Latremoliere A and Woolf CJ. “Central sensitization: a generator of pain hypersensitivity by central neural plasticity”. The Journal of Pain9 (2009): 895-926. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19712899/
  22. Hains BC and Waxman SG. “Activated microglia contribute to the maintenance of chronic pain after spinal cord injury”. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience16 (2006): 4308-4317. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16624951/
  23. Simons LE., et al. “Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach”. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 39 (2014): 61. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24374383/
  24. Elman I., et al. “The missing p in psychiatric training: why it is important to teach pain to psychiatrists”. Archives of General Psychiatry1 (2011): 12-20. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21199962/
  25. Borsook D., et al. “Reward-aversion circuitry in analgesia and pain: implications for psychiatric disorders”. European Journal of pain (London, England)1 (2007): 7-20. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16495096/
  26. Bendelow GA and Williams SJ. “Transcending the dualisms: towards a sociology of pain”. Sociology of Health and Illness2 (1995): 139-165. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229777947_Transcending_the_dualisms_Towards_a_sociology_of_pain
  27. Elman I., et al. “Pain and suicidality: insights from reward and addiction neuroscience”. Progress in Neurobiology 109 (2013): 1-27. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23827972/
  28. Goldberg RT., et al. “Relationship between traumatic events in childhood and chronic pain”. Disability and Rehabilitation1 (1999): 23-30. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10070600/
  29. Nicolson NA., et al. “Childhood maltreatment and diurnal cortisol patterns in women with chronic pain”. Psychosomatic Medicine5 (2010): 471-480.
  30. Miller LR and Cano A. “Comorbid chronic pain and depression: who is at risk?” The Journal of Pain6 (2009): 619-627. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19398383/
  31. Ohayon MM and Schatzberg AF. “Chronic pain and major depressive disorder in the general population”. Journal of Psychiatric Research7 (2010): 454-461. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20149391/
  32. Wiech K and Tracey I. “The influence of negative emotions on pain: behavioral effects and neural mechanisms”. NeuroImage 3 (2009): 987-994. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19481610/
  33. Rhudy JL and Meagher MW. “Fear and anxiety: divergent effects on human pain thresholds”. Pain1 (2000): 65-75. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10601674/
  34. Rhudy JL and Meagher MW. “Individual differences in the emotional reaction to shock determine whether hypoalgesia is observed”. Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass)3 (2003): 244-256. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12974824/
  35. von Korff M and Simon G. “The Relationship Between Pain and Depression”. The British Journal of PsychiatryS30 (1996): 101-108. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8864155/
  36. Leeuw M., et al. “The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: current state of scientific evidence”. Journal of Behavioral Medicine1 (2007): 77-94. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17180640/
  37. Sturgeon JA. “Psychological therapies for the management of chronic pain”. Psychology Research and Behavior Management 7 (2014): 115. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24748826/
  38. Hayes SC., et al. “Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes and outcomes”. Behavior Research and Therapy1 (2006): 1-25. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16300724/
  39. Pincus T and McCracken LM. “Psychological factors and treatment opportunities in low back pain”. Best Practice and Research Clinical Rheumatology5 (2013): 625-635. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24315144/
  40. Day M., et al. “The Continuing Evolution of Biopsychosocial Interventions for Chronic Pain”. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 2 (2012): 114-129. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279940697_The_Continuing_Evolution_of_Biopsychosocial_Interventions_for_Chronic_Pain
  41. Turk DC. “The potential of treatment matching for subgroups of patients with chronic pain: lumping versus splitting”. The Clinical Journal of Pain1 (2005): 44-55. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15599131/
  42. Turk DC., et al. “Differential responses by psychosocial subgroups of fibromyalgia syndrome patients to an interdisciplinary treatment”. Arthritis Care and Research: The Official Journal of the Arthritis Health Professions Association5 (1998): 397-404. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9830884/
  43. Kerns RD., et al. “Readiness to adopt a self-management approach to chronic pain: the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ)”. Pain1-2 (1997): 227-234. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9272807/
  44. Dimidjian S and Hollon SD. “How would we know if psychotherapy were harmful?” The American Psychologist1 (2010): 21-33. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20063907/
  45. Vadivelu N., et al. “Pain and Psychology-A Reciprocal Relationship”. The Ochsner Journal2 (2017): 173-180. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28638291/
  46. Wager TD., et al. “An fMRI-Based Neurologic Signature of Physical Pain”. New England Journal of Medicine15 (2013): 1388-1397. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1204471
  47. Melzack R. “Pain and the Neuromatrix in the Brain”. Journal of Dental Education12 (2001): 1378-1382. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11780656/
Citation: Roberson R, Kerna NA, Flores JV, Chawla S, Brown SM, Anderson II J, Holets HM, Carsrud NDV, Nwokorie U, Pruitt KD. “Neuronal Mechanisms and Treatment Approaches to Emotional and Physical Pain”. EC Neurology 14.4 (2022): 28-37.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 14, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.