Review Article
Volume 14 Issue 3 - 2022
Gait: The First Indicator of Many Neurological Diseases and Disorders
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, Sudeep Chawla3, Stephen M Brown4, ND Victor Carsrud5, Hilary M Holets6,7, John V Flores6,7 and Kevin D Pruitt8,9

1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3Chawla Health & Research, USA
4International University of Health Sciences, St. Kitts
5Lakeline Wellness Center, USA
6Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
7Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
8Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
9PBJ Medical Associates, LLC, USA

*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500. Contact: medpublab+drkerna@gmail.com.
Received: January 13, 2022; Published: February 28, 2022




Abstract

The intricate interplay of the primary elements of the neurological, musculoskeletal, and cardiorespiratory systems underpins human gait. In elderly individuals, a preferred brisk walk is a strong indicator of overall health and quality of life (QoL). However, the physiology of walking is complicated. Thus, diagnosis of gait problems requires a thorough understanding of normal gait physiology.

Gait abnormalities are typically a debilitating side effect of aging. Irrespective of whether neurological or non-neurological in origin, they are a significant source of disability, morbidity, and mortality in the elderly population. Gait abnormalities result in the loss of personal freedom, falls, and injuries, significantly decreasing an individual's QoL. This review discusses the origins and concepts of instrumented gait analysis.

A method for examining gait and essential aspects of prevalent gait abnormalities and their underlying causes are also covered. In addition, a clinically focused strategy for treating neurological gait concerns in elderly individuals, and the future of gait analysis is presented.

Keywords: Abnormal Walking; Antalgic; Cerebral Cortex; Cognitive Impairment; Frequent Falling; Nerve Degeneration

References

  1. Pirker W and Katzenschlager R. “Gait disorders in adults and the elderly”. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift3-4 (2017): 81-95. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27770207/
  2. Baker R. “The history of gait analysis before the advent of modern computers”. Gait and Posture 3 (2007): 331-342. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17306979/
  3. Ukrit MF and Nithyakani P. “The systematic review on gait analysis: trends and developments”. European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine6 (2020): 1636-1654. https://ejmcm.com/article_3887.html
  4. Stergiou N. “Biomechanics and gait analysis”. Academic Press (2020). https://www.elsevier.com/books/biomechanics-and-gait-analysis/stergiou/978-0-12-813372-9
  5. Steindler A. “Historical review of the studies and investigations made in relation to human gait”. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume 35A (1953): 540-542. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13069543/
  6. Whittle MW. “Gait analysis: an introduction”. Butterworth-Heinemann (2014).
  7. Bresler B and Frankel JB. “The forces and moments in the leg during level walking”. Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 72 (1950): 27-36. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-forces-and-moments-in-the-leg-during-level-Bresler/b39dc8d2193f7c1582ee3ec35904cf3468ed71e1
  8. Eberhardt HD., et al. “The principal elements in human locomotion”. In: Klopsteg PE, Wilson PD, editors. Human Limbs and Their Substitutes. New York (NY): McGraw Hill 1 (1954): 437-471.
  9. Lieberson WT. “Biomechanics of gait: A method of study”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 46 (1965): 37-48. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14263994/
  10. Gage H. “Accelerographic analysis of human gait”. In: Edward CL, Giardini AA, editors. Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Annual Meeting. 1964 Nov 29-Dec 4 New York (NY). ASME (1965): 04WA/HUF8.
  11. Morris JR. “Accelerometry- a technique for the measurement of human body movement”. Journal of Biomechanics 6 (1973): 729-736. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0021929073900298
  12. Close JR and Todd FN. “The phasic activity of the muscles of the lower extremity and the effect of tendon transfer”. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume2 (1959): 189-208. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13630955/
  13. Sutherland DH and Hagy JL. “Measurement of gait movements from motion picture “film””. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume 4 (1972): 787-797. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/5055170/
  14. Johnston RC and Smidt GL. “Measurement of hip joint motion during walking: evaluation of an electrogoniometric method”. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume 6 (1969): 1083-1094. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/5805410/
  15. Winter DA. “Biomechanics and motor control of human movement”. 2nd Waterloo, Canada: University of Waterloo Press (1990): 75-102.
  16. Al-Zahrani KS and Bakheit MO. “A historical review of gait analysis”. Neurosciences Journal2 (2008):105-108. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21063300/
  17. Milligan TA. “Neurology for the Non-Neurologist, An Issue of Medical Clinics of North America, Ebook”. Elsevier Health Sciences (2019).
  18. Sivarathinabala M., et al. “Abnormal gait recognition using exemplar-based algorithm in healthcare applications”. International Journal of Communication Systems13 (2020): e4348. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/dac.4348
  19. Azahari A., et al. “Dynamic simulation and analysis of human walking mechanism”. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1 (2017): 012027. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/165/1/012027
  20. Baker Jessica M. “Gait Disorders”. The American Journal of Medicine6 (2017): 602-607. https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(17)31295-0/fulltext
  21. Abnormal Gait. https://www.physio.co.uk/what-we-treat/neurological/symptoms/walking-problems/abnormal-gait.php
  22. Walking Abnormalities. https://www.healthline.com/health/walking-abnormalities
  23. Ronthal M. “Gait disorders and falls in the elderly”. Medical Clinics of North America 2 (2019): 203-213. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30704677/
  24. S Sophia., et al. “Gait Abnormality Classification in Clinical Field”. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT)4 (2020): 128-131. https://www.ijeat.org/wp-content/uploads/papers/v9i4/C6388029320.pdf
  25. Salzman B. “Gait and balance disorders in older adults”. American Family Physician1 (2010): 61-68. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p61.html
  26. Jahn K., et al. “Gait disturbances in old age: classification, diagnosis, and treatment from a neurological perspective”. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International17 (2010): 306-315. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20490346/
  27. Bukmir RP., et al. “Influence of tobacco smoking on dental periapical condition in a sample of Croatian adults”. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift7-8 (2016): 260-265. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26659908/
  28. Jankovic J. “Gait disorders”. Neurologic Clinics1 (2015): 249-268. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25432732/
  29. Gait Disorders in Older Adults. https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-in/professional/geriatrics/gait-disorders-in-older-adults/gait-disorders-in-older-adults
  30. Verghese J., et al. “Quantitative gait markers and incident fall risk in older adults”. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A8 (2009): 896-901. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19349593/
  31. Horak FB and Mancini M. “Objective biomarkers of balance and gait for Parkinson's disease using body‐worn sensors”. Movement Disorders11 (2013): 1544-1551. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24132842/
  32. Dietz V. “Gait disorders”. Handbook of Clinical Neurology 110 (2013): 133-143. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23312637/
  33. Favre J and Jolles BM. “Gait analysis of patients with knee osteoarthritis highlights a pathological mechanical pathway and provides a basis for therapeutic interventions”. EFORT Open Reviews10 (2016): 368-374. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28461915/
  34. Osada Y., et al. “Abnormal Gait Movements Prior to a Near Fall in Individuals After Stroke”. Archives of Rehabilitation Research and Clinical Translation4 (2021): 100156. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34977538/
  35. Genêt F., et al. “Orthotic devices and gait in polio patients”. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine1 (2010): 51-59. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20022835/
  36. Ataullah AH and De Jesus O. “Gait Disturbances”. StatPearls [Internet] (2021). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560610/
  37. Gait Disorders and Ataxia. https://www.pacificneuroscienceinstitute.org/movement-disorders/conditions/gait-disorders/
  38. Khajuria A., et al. “Comprehensive statistical analysis of the gait parameters in neurodegenerative diseases”. Neurophysiology 1 (2018): 38-51. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325252830_Comprehensive_Statistical_Analysis_of_the_Gait_Parameters_in_Neurodegenerative_Diseases
  39. Yan Y., et al. “Classification of neurodegenerative diseases via topological motion analysis-A comparison study for multiple gait fluctuations”. IEEE Access 8 (2020): 96363-96377. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9098883
  40. Neurodegenerative Disease. https://www.physio-pedia.com/Neurodegenerative_Disease
  41. Montero-Odasso M and Perry G. “Gait disorders in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias: there is something in the way you walk”. Journal of Alzheimer's Diseases1 (2019): S1-S4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31476163/
  42. Velayutham SG., et al. “Quantitative balance and gait measurement in patients with frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer diseases: a pilot study”. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine2 (2017): 176-182. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28515555/
  43. van Engelen MP., et al. “End-Stage Clinical Features and Cause of Death of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Young-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease3 (2020): 1169-1180. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32925036/
  44. Guenter W., et al. “Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with dominant gait disturbances-case report”. Psychiatria Polska 2 (2016): 329-336. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27288678/
  45. Kim SM., et al. “Gait patterns in Parkinson's disease with or without cognitive impairment”. Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders 2 (2018): 57-65. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6427969/
  46. Allen NE., et al. “Recurrent falls in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review”. Parkinson’s Disease (2013): 906274. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23533953/
  47. Danoudis M and Iansek R. “Gait in Huntington’s disease and the stride length-cadence relationship”. BMC Neurology1 (2014): 161. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25265896/
  48. Talman LS and Hiller AL. “Approach to Posture and Gait in Huntington’s Disease”. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 9 (2021): 668699. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353382/
  49. Jin L., et al. “Gait characteristics and clinical relevance of hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia on deep learning”. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 103 (2020): 101794. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0933365719310164
  50. Duenas AM., et al. “Molecular pathogenesis of spinocerebellar ataxias”. Brain6 (2006): 1357-1370. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16613893/
  51. Matsugi A., et al. “Rehabilitation for Spinocerebellar Ataxia”. Spinocerebellar Ataxia (2021). https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/75081
  52. Jahn K., et al. “Gait disturbances in old age: classification, diagnosis, and treatment from a neurological perspective”. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International17 (2010): 306-315. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20490346/
  53. Nonnekes J., et al. “Neurological disorders of gait, balance, and posture: a sign-based approach”. Nature Reviews Neurology3 (2018): 183-189. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29377011/
  54. Biomechanics of Gait and Treatment of Abnormal Gait Patterns. https://now.aapmr.org/biomechanic-of-gait-and-treatment-of-abnormal-gait-patterns/
  55. Moon Y., et al. “Gait variability in people with neurological disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Human Movement Science 47 (2016): 197-208. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27023045/
  56. Hausdorff JM., et al. “Gait variability and fall risk in community-living older adults: a 1-year prospective study”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation8 (2001): 1050-1056. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11494184/
  57. Darweesh SKL., et al. “Quantitative gait, cognitive decline, and incident dementia: the Rotterdam Study”. Alzheimer's and Dementia10 (2019): 1264‐1273. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31515066/
  58. Ceïde ME., et al. “Walking while talking and risk of incident dementia”. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 5 (2018): 580‐588. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29395856/
  59. Montero‐Odasso M., et al. “Gait and cognition: a complementary approach to understanding brain function and the risk of falling”. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society11 (2012): 2127-2136. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23110433/
  60. Montero‐Odasso M., et al. “Dual‐task complexity affects gait in people with mild cognitive impairment: the interplay between gait variability, dual tasking, and risk of falls”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2 (2012): 293‐299. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22289240/
  61. Nakamura T., et al. “Relationship between falls and stride length variability in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type”. Gerontology2 (1996): 108‐113. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9138973/
  62. Allali G., et al. “Gait phenotype from mild cognitive impairment to moderate dementia: results from the GOOD initiative”. European Journal of Neurology 3 (2016): 527‐541. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26662508/
  63. Mc Ardle R., et al. “Do Alzheimer's and Lewy body disease have discrete pathological signatures of gait?” Alzheimer's and Dementia10 (2019): 1367‐1377. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31548122/
  64. Fritz NE., et al. “Motor performance differentiates individuals with Lewy body dementia, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease”. Gait Posture 50 (2016): 1‐7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27544062/
  65. Allali G., et al. “Frontotemporal dementia: pathology of gait?” Movement Disorders 6 (2010): 731‐737. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20175202/
  66. Pieruccini‐Faria F., et al. “Gait variability across neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders: Results from the Canadian Consortium of Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) and the Gait and Brain Study”. Alzheimer's and Dementia8 (2021): 1317-1328. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33590967/
  67. Galna B., et al. “Progression of gait dysfunction in incident Parkinson's disease: impact of medication and phenotype”. Movement Disorders 3 (2015): 359‐367. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25546558/
  68. Morris R., et al. “Gait rather than cognition predicts decline in specific cognitive domains in early Parkinson's disease”. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 12 (2017): 1656‐1662. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28472409/
  69. Kaufman KR. “Future directions in gait analysis”. Gait analysis in the science of rehabilitation (1999). https://www.rehab.research.va.gov/mono/gait/kaufman.pdf
  70. Saboor A., et al. “Latest Research Trends in Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors and Machine Learning: A Systematic Review”. IEEE Access 8 (2020): 167830-167864. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9187883
Citation: Kerna NA, Chawla S, Brown SM, Carsrud NDV, Holets HM, Flores JV, Pruitt KD. “Gait: The First Indicator of Many Neurological Diseases and Disorders”. EC Neurology 14.3 (2022): 58-74.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 14, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.