Research Article
Volume 13 Issue 12 - 2021
Possibilities of Ultrasound in Visualization of Cervical Disc Protrusion Detected by MRI in Adolescents and Young Adults

Ruslan R Abdullaiev, Igor A Voronzhev, Rizvan Yagubovich Abdullaiev* and Larisa A Sysun

Kharkov Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
*Corresponding Author: Rizvan Yagubovich Abdullaiev, Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics of Kharkov Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine.
Received: November 10, 2021; Published: November 26, 2021




Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of ultrasound in diagnosing of the cervical disc protrusion in adolescents detected by MRI and to determine what factors may affect the quality of disc imaging using ultrasound.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the results of ultrasonography was carried out in 67 patients with protrusion of the cervical intervertebral discs diagnosed by MRI. The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 21 years, including 28 girls and 39 boys. All patients had clinical signs of degenerative disc disease and complained of cervicogenic pain.

Ultrasonography of the cervical spine held on the levels from C2-C3 to C7-Th1 in sagittal and axial projections. The results given as mean (standard deviation) and p < 0.05 were considered significant.

Results: The coincidence of the results of MRI and ultrasound took place in 64 (95,5 ± 2,5%) cases of cervical discs protrusion. In 4 (6,0 ± 2,9%) cases the protrusion was localized at the level of C2-C3, in 9 (13,4 ± 4,2%) - at the level of C3-C4, in 16 (23,9 ± 5,2%) - C4-C5, in 25 (37,3 ± 5,9%) - C5-C6, in 10 (14,9 ± 4,4%) - at the level C6-C7, in 3 (4,5 ± 2,5%) - at the level C7 -Th1, respectively.

Central localization of cervical disc protrusion was noted in 32 (47.8 ± 6.1%) cases, paramedial - in 23 (34.3 ± 5.8%) and foraminal - in 12 (17.9 ± 4.7%) cases. US revealed medial protrusion in 34 (50.7 ± 6.1%) cases, paramedical - in 19 (28.4 ± 5.5%) cases, and foraminal - in 11 (16.4 ± 4.5%) cases.

Conclusion: Ultrasonography can be an alternative method for diagnosing cervical disc protrusion. When imaging the anterior dural space at the level of the cervical discs, ultrasonography has an advantage over MRI. Visualization of C7-Th1 with USG in athletes is limited due to the development of muscle mass in the neck.

Keywords: Spine; Ultrasound; MRI; Disc Degeneration; Cervical Discs Protrusion

References

  1. Westrick E., et al. “The intervertebral disc: normal, aging, and pathologic”. In: Herkowitz HN, Garfin SR, Eismont FJ, et al. eds. Rothman-Simeone the Spine. 6th Saunders Philadelphia (2011): 97-128.
  2. Purmessur D., et al. “Notochordal cell-derived therapeutic strategies for discogenic back pain”. Global Spine Journal 3 (2013): 201-218.
  3. Berg EJ and Ashurst JV. “Anatomy, Back, Cauda Equina”. StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing Treasure Island (FL) (2020).
  4. Huang YC., et al. “Biomaterials for intervertebral disc regeneration: Current status and looming challenges”. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine11 (2018): 2188-2202.
  5. van Uden S., et al. “Current strategies for treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration: substitution and regeneration possibilities”. Biomaterials Research 21 (2017): 22.
  6. Sakai D and Grad S. “Advancing the cellular and molecular therapy for intervertebral disc disease”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 84 (2015): 159-171.
  7. Wilder FV., et al. “Radiographic cervical spine osteoarthritis progression rates: a longitudinal assessment”. Rheumatology International 1 (2011): 45-48.
  8. GBD 2016. Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators T., et al. “Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016”. Lancet (London, England) 10100 (2017): 1211-1259.
  9. Chou R., et al. “Appropriate use of lumbar imaging for evaluation of low back pain”. Radiologic Clinics of North America 4 (2012): 569-585.
  10. Ikeda H., et al. “Nontraumatic cervical disc herniation in a 21-year-old patient with no other underlying disease”. Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica 9 (2012): 652-656.
  11. Makino H., et al. “Lumbar disc degeneration progression in young women in their 20's: A prospective ten-year follow up”. Journal of Orthopaedic Science4 (2017): 635-640.
  12. Suzuki A., et al. “Magnetic Resonance Classification System of Cervical Intervertebral Disk Degeneration: Its Validity and Meaning”. Clinical Spine Surgery 5 (2017): E547-E553.
  13. Wasserman MS., et al. “Evaluation of spine MRIs in athletes participating in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic games”. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine 1 (2018): e000335.
Citation: Rizvan Yagubovich Abdullaiev., et al. “Possibilities of Ultrasound in Visualization of Cervical Disc Protrusion Detected by MRI in Adolescents and Young Adults”. EC Neurology 13.12 (2021): 55-62.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 25, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.