Research Article
Volume 13 Issue 9 - 2021
New Perspectives on Cognitive Rehabilitation, Behavioral and Stimulation Therapies Post Covid-19
Eddie John Paul Fisher1* and Dalia Taubach2
1Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic and SKEMA Business School, Lille and Paris, France
2Gesamtschule am Lauerhaas, Wesel, Germany
*Corresponding Author: Eddie John Paul Fisher, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic and SKEMA Business School, Lille and Paris, France.
Received: August 01, 2021; Published: August 27, 2021


Cognitive rehabilitation, behavioral and stimulation therapies appear to have become the de facto standard for the treatment of brain injuries and mental health issues post-Covid. This research proposes what are the most considered appropriate therapy approaches for cognitive therapists. A combination of literature review and face to face interviews was applied to close the identified knowledge gap of what is expected of cognitive therapists and what they can deliver against these expectations. Results suggest that cognitive therapists would benefit from adopting the suggested concepts of neurogenesis and cranioplasty to improve the successful delivery of cognitive therapy. The findings also suggest that some cognitive treatment approaches such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Virtual Reality (VR) require further research before their applications in cognitive therapy can be proposed.

Keywords: Cognitive Rehabilitation/Behavioral/Stimulation Therapy; Mental Health; Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI); Memory Disorder; Dementia and ‘Rementia’; Long-Covid


  1. American Psychiatric Associates. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision), Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association (2000).
  2. Baba L. “Traumatic Brain Injury Workbook-A Method To Help Improve Memory and Cognitive Function, Printed in Great Britain by Amazon (2019).
  3. BBC iPlayer. “Mental Health”. Drs Chris and Xand van Tulleken, Series 1:1 (2017).
  4. Benedict SM., et al. “Veterans health initiative on traumatic brain injury”. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (2010).
  5. Babikian T and Asarnow R. “Neurocognitive outcomes and recovery after pediatric TBI: meta-analysis review of the literature”. Neuropsychology 23 (2009): 283-296.
  6. British Medical Journal (2021).
  7. Bredesen DE. “Reversal of cognitive decline: A novel therapeutic program”. Aging9 (2014): 707-717.
  8. Carroll BJ. “Ageing, stress and the brain”. Novartis Foundation Symposium 242 (2002): 36-45.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2015). Report to Congress on traumatic brain injury in the United States: Epidemiology and rehabilitation, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2015).
  10. Cicerone KD., et al. “Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: updated review of the literature from 2003 through to 2008”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation4 (2011): 519-530.
  11. Cicerone KD., et al. “Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 1998 through to 2002”. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation 86 (2005): 1681-1692.
  12. Cicerone KD., et al. “Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: recommendations for practice”. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation12 (2000): 1596-1615.
  13. Di Stefano C., et al. “Neuropsychological changes and cranioplasty: a group analysis”. Brain Injury 30 (2016): 164-171.
  14. Di Stefano C., et al. “Unexpected neuropsychological improvement after cranioplasty: a case series study”. British Journal of Neurosurgery 26 (2012): 827-831.
  15. Eagleman D. “The Brain-The Story of You”. Canongate Books Ltd. Eu (2015).
  16. Foreman EI and Pollard C. “CBT-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Icon Books Ltd (2016).
  17. Edward L and Khan A. “Concussion, Traumatic Brain Injury”. MTBI-The Ultimate TBI Rehabilitation Guide, Published by Amazon (2019).
  18. Foulkes L. “Losing Our Mind-What Mental Illness Really is, And What it isn’t”. E-Book, Penguin (2021).
  19. Gottlieb G. “Individual development and evaluation”. New York: Oxford University Press (1992).
  20. Gupta S. “Keep Sharp-Build a Better Brain at Any Age”. Simon and Schuster, USA (2021).
  21. Harcombe Z., et al. “Evidence from randomized controlled trials did not support the introduction of dietary fat guidelines in 1977 and 1983: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Open Heart (2015): 2.
  22. Harley JP., et al. “Guidelines for cognitive rehabilitation”. Neuro Rehabilitation3 (1992): 62-67.
  23. Holmes EA., et al. “The Lancet Psychiatry Commission on psychological treatments research in tomorrow’s science”. Lancet Psychiatry3 (2018): 237-286.
  24. ICD-10. “International Classification of Diseases, World Health Organization (2015).
  25. Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2021).
  26. Johns P. Clinical Neuroscience-An Illustrated Colour Text, Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier (2014).
  27. Johnson MH and De Haan M. “Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Fourth Edition, Wiley, Blackwell (2015).
  28. Kamber S and Osterwalder R. “Deshalb ist das Ziel der KST, eine Anregung der Kognition zu Erlangen”. BA thesis, In Medline, CINAHL Complete, PsychInfo (2020).
  29. Kasper E., et al. “Kognitive Rehabilitation by Alzheimer im Fruehstadium”. Oxford Centre of Evidence Based Medicine (2015).
  30. Kernisan, L.: https: better (2020).
  31. Kim EJ., et al. “Stress effects on the hippocampus: A critical review”. Learning and Memory9 (2015): 411-416.
  32. Kitwood T. “Dementia Reconsidered: The Person comes First”. Maidenhead: Open University Press (1997).
  33. Kitwood T. “Brain, mind and dementia: With particular reference to Alzheimer’s disease”. Aging and Society 9 (1989): 1-15.
  34. Kitwood T and Bredin K. “Toward a theory of dementia care: Personhood and wellbeing”. Aging and Society 3 (1992): 269-287.
  35. Ludlow CL., et al. “Translating principle of neural plasticity into research on speech motor control recovery and rehabilitation”. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research: JSLHR1 (2008): S 240-S 258.
  36. Ledoux JE. “Anxious: Using the Brain to Understand and Treat Fear and Anxiety, London: Viking (2015).
  37. Liesk J., et al. “Kognitive Stimulation and Musikintervention bei stationaer versorgten Menschen mit Demenz”. Zeitschrift fuer Gerontologie und Geriatrie (2014).
  38. Moucha R and Kilgard MP. “Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation”. Progressive Brain Research 57 (2006): 111-389.
  39. National Academics Press. Evaluating the evidence, Washington, D.C (2020).
  40. Nudo RJ. “Recover after brain injury: mechanisms and principles”. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7 (2013).
  41. Ostergen JA. “Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy For Traumatic Brain Injury-A Guide for Speech-Language Pathologists, Plural Publishing, Inc (2018).
  42. Perlmutter D. “Grain Brain: The Surprising Truth about Wheat, Carbs and Sugar-Your-Brain’s Silent Killers”. London: Yellow Kite Books, Hodder and Stoughto (2014).
  43. Pool J. “Reducing The Symptoms Of Alzheimer’s Disease And Other Dementias-A Guide to Personal Cognitive Rehabilitation Techniques”. Jessica Kingsley Publishers (2019).
  44. Premack D and Woodruff G. “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?” Behavioral Brain Science 1 (1978): 515-526.
  45. Prigatano GP. “Neuropsychologische Rehabilitation”. Chapter 8.1.2, Springer Verlag, Germany (2013).
  46. Ressel V., et al. “Magnetic resonance imaging markers reflect cognitive outcome after rehabilitation in children with acquired brain injury”. European Journal of Radiology 126 (2020): 108963.
  47. , et al. “The Complete CBT Guide for Anxiety”. Robinson (2013).
  48. Smyth N., et al. “Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in social science research”. Social and Personality Psychology, Compass9 (2013): 605-625.
  49. Stuss D and Alexander M. “Is there a dysexecutive syndrome?” Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 1481 (2007): 901-915.
  50. Stuss DT and Levine B. “Adult clinical neuropsychology: Lessons from studies of the frontal lobes”. Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 401-433.
  51. Takeuchi, N and Izumi S. “Rehabilitation with poststroke motor recovery: a review with a focus on neural plasticity”. Stroke Research and Treatment (2013): 128641.
  52. Tate R., et al. “INCOG recommendations for management of cognitive following traumatic brain injury, Part 3: Executive function and self-awareness”. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation4 (2014): 338-352.
  53. Vos A., et al. “Reasoning training in veteran and civilian traumatic brain injury with persistent mild impairment”. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation4 (2016): 502-531.
  54. Williams PB and Nusbaum HC. “Toward a Neuroscience of Wisdom”. In Neuroimaging Personality, Social Cognition, and Character (Absher, J.R.-editor; Cloutier, J.-co-editor), Chapter 21 (2016): 383-395.
Citation: Eddie John Paul Fisher and Dalia Taubach. “New Perspectives on Cognitive Rehabilitation, Behavioral and Stimulation Therapies Post Covid-19”. EC Neurology 13.9 (2021): 19-36.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.