Short Communication
Volume 13 Issue 8 - 2021
The Portrait of a Killer; SARS-CoV-2 Potential Mechanisms For Neuronal Damage
Jeswinder Sian-Hülsmann*
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
*Corresponding Author: Jeswinder Sian-Hülsmann, Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Received: June 14, 2021; Published: July 22, 2021

The betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 [1] was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 [2]. Since then, it has rapidly swept through the globe, resulting in a pandemic [3] of the twenty first century. SARS-CoV-2 still tenaciously persists and rages through many parts of the world. It ravages the human population leaving illness and death in its wake. As of June 3rd 2021, the WHO COVID-19 dashboard has reported 171 million cases of SARS-CoV-2 in 220 countries and 3.686 million deaths.


Although, SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes an acute respiratory syndrome, it can damage the heart and also induce brain dysfunction, neuropsychiatric and neurological manifestations [4]. Furthermore, post mortem evidence shows signs of multi-organ (lungs, heart, kidneys, brain and liver) dysfunction and failure [5,6]. This is probably related to inflammatory volatile “cytokine storm” and coagulation abnormalities ascribing for the malevolent and potentially lethal actions of the virus.


  1. Hu B., et al. “Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19”. Nature Reviews Microbiology 19 (2021): 141-154.
  2. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), 16-24 (2020).
  3. WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID19 (2020).
  4. Varatharaj A., et al. “Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of Covid -19 in 153 patients: a UK wide surveillance study”. 7.10 (2020): 875-882.
  5. Maiese A., et al. “Autopsy findings in COVID-19-related deaths: a literature review”. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology 17 (2021): 279-296.
  6. Hanley B., et al. “Histopathological findings and viral tropism in UK patients with severe fatal COVID-19: a post-mortem study”. Lancet Microbe20 (2020): 30115-30124.
  7. Abrahams A. “Discussion on Influenza”. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 12 (1919): 100.
  8. Maurizi CP. “Influenza caused epidemic encephalitis (encephalitis lethargica): the circumstantial evidence and a challenge to the nonbelievers”. Medical Hypotheses5 (2010): 798-801.
  9. Spilsbury BH. “Discussion on Influenza”. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 12 (1919): 57.
  10. Robinson RL., et al. “Transient parkinsonism in West Nile virus encephalitis”. The American Journal of Medicine 115 (2003): 252-253.
  11. Peatfield RC. “Basal ganglia damage and subcortical dementia after possible insidious Coxsackie virus encephalitis”. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 76 (1987): 340-345.
  12. Reyes MG., et al. “St Louis encephalitis. Quantitative histologic and immunofluorescent studies”. Archives of Neurology 38 (1981): 329-334.
  13. Minami M., et al. “Isatin, an endogenous MAO inhibitor and a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by the Japanese encephalitis virus”. Journal of Neural Transmission 71 (2006): 87-95.
  14. Koutsilieri E., et al. “Parkinsonism in HIV dementia”. Journal of Neural Transmission 109 (2002): 767-775.
  15. Jang H., et al. “Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus can enter the central nervous system and induce neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America33 (2009): 14063-14068.
  16. Ellul MA., et al. “Neurological associations of COVID-19”. Lancet Neurology9 (2020): 767-783.
  17. Muccioli L., et al. “COVID-19-Associated Encephalopathy and Cytokine-Mediated Neuroinflammation Anaals of neurology letter to editor (2020).
  18. Mao L., et al. “Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China”. JAMA Neurology (2020).
  19. Butowt R and Bilinska K. “SARS-CoV-2: Olfaction, Brain Infection, and the Urgent Need for Clinical Samples Allowing Earlier Virus Detection ACS”. ACS Chemical Neuroscience9 (2020): 1200-1203.
  20. Lee MH., et al. “Microvascular Injury in the Brains of Patients with Covid-19”. The New England Journal of Medicine 384 (2021): 481-483.
  21. McGeer PL., et al. “Reactive microglia are positive for HLA-DR in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease brains”. Neurology8 (1988): 1285-1291.
  22. Merello M., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of Parkinson’s disease:fact and fantasy”. Lancet Neurology2 (2020): 94-95.
  23. Cohen ME., et al. “A case of probable Parkinson’s disease after SARS-CoV-2 infection”. Lancet Neurology10 (2020): 804-805.
  24. Meftahi GH., et al. “The possible pathophysiology mechanism of cytokine storm in elderly adults with COVID-19 infection: the contribution of “inflame-aging”. Inflammation Research 69 (2020): 825-839.
  25. Sian-Hulsmann and Riederer P. “The nigral coup in Parkinson’s disease by alpha-synuclein and its associated rebels”. Cells3 (2021): 598.
  26. Paniz-Mondolfi A., et al. “Central nervous system involvement by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)”. Journal of Medical Virology 92 (2020): 699-702.
  27. Jeffers SA., et al. “CD209L (L-SIGN) is a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 (2004): 15748-15157.
  28. Østergaard L. “SARS CoV‐2 related microvascular damage and symptoms during and after COVID‐19: Consequences of capillary transit‐time changes, tissue hypoxia and inflammation”. Physiology Reports (2021).
  29. Zhou F., et al. “Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study”. Lancet 395 (2020): 1054-1062.
  30. Tufan A., et al. “COVID-19, immune system response, hyperinflammation and repurposing antirheumatic drugs”. The Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences SI-1 (2020): 620-632.
  31. Nikbakht F., et al. “How does the COVID-19 cause seizure and epilepsy in patients? The potential mechanisms”. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders 46 (2020): 102535.
  32. Rana A and Musto AE. “The role of inflammation in the development of epilepsy”. Journal of Neuroinflammation1 (2018): 144.
  33. Vaz AR. “Pro-inflammatory cytokines intensify the activation of NO/NOS, JNK1/2 and caspase cascades in immature neurons exposed to elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin”. Experimental Neurology2 (2011): 381-390.
  34. Radi R. “Oxygen radicals, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite: Redox pathways in molecular medicine”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America23 (2018): 5839-5848.
  35. Wu J. “Tackle the free radicals damage in COVID-19 Nitric Oxide. 102 (2020): 39-41.
  36. Sian-Hulsmann J and Riederer P. “The Odyssey of alpha-synuclein and neuroinflammatory mediators as potential candidates in the aetiology of Parkinson’s disease”. Journal of Experimental Neurology4 (2020): 123-132.
  37. Mann JJ. “Role of the serotonergic system in the pathogenesis of major depression and suicidal behavior”. Neuropsychopharmacology 21 (1999): 99S-105S.
  38. Wu H., et al. “Beyond a neurotransmitter: the role of serotonin in inflammation and immunity”. Pharmacological Research 140 (2019): 100-114.
  39. Mota CDM., et al. “Central serotonin prevents hypotension and hypothermia and reduces plasma and spleen cytokine levels during systemic inflammation”. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 80 (2019): 255-265.
  40. Luis HA Costa., et al. “Can selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have a neuroprotective effect during COVID-19?” European Journal of Pharmacology 889 (2020): 173629.
  41. Lee DW., et al. “ASTCT consensus grading for cytokine release syndrome and neurologic toxicity associated with immune effector cells”. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 25 (2019): 625- 638.
  42. McFadyen JD., et al. “The emerging threat of (micro) thrombosis in COVID-19 and its therapeutic implications”. Circulation Research 127 (2020): 571-587.
  43. Sardu C., et al. “Hypertension, thrombosis, kidney failure, and diabetes: is COVID-19 an endothelial disease? A comprehensive evaluation of clinical and basic evidence”. Journal of Clinical Medicine5 (2020): 1417.
  44. Avnon LS., et al. “Thromboembolic events in patients with severe pandemic influenza A/H1N1”. European Journal of Internal Medicine8 (2015): 596-598.
  45. Nitsure M., et al. “Mechanisms of Hypoxia in COVID-19 Patients: A Pathophysiologic Reflection”. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine10 (2020): 967-970.
  46. Iadecola C., et al. “Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology25 (2019): 3326-3344.
Citation: Jeswinder Sian-Hülsmann. “The Portrait of a Killer; SARS-CoV-2 Potential Mechanisms For Neuronal Damage”. EC Neurology 13.8 (2021): 36-41.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 08, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to