Review Article
Volume 13 Issue 11 - 2021
Is Brain Aggression a Mystery?
Raghavendra Rao MV1*, Siva Anoop Yella2, Mohammed Khaleel3, YK Verma4, Srinivasa Rao D5, Adarsh Meher Nisanth6, Dilip Mathai7, Chennamchetty Vijay Kumar8, Abrar A Khan9 and Reshma Fatteh10
1Scientist-Emeritus and Director Central Research Laboratory, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Hyderabad, TS, India
2Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, Telangana Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, TS, India
3Professor and Lab Director, Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Owaisi Hospital and Research Canter, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, TS, India
4Assistant Professor, Microbiology, Mansur University, Mansur, Madhya Pradesh, India
5Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur, AP, India
6NRI Medical College, Dr. NTR University Health Sciences, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
7Professor, Department of Medicine, and Dean, Apollo institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Hyderabad, TS, India
8Associate Professor, Department of Pulmonology, Apollo Institute of Medical Science and Research, Hyderabad, TS, India
9Dean of Basic Sciences, American University School of Medicine, Aruba, Caribbean Islands
10Assistant Professor, Psychology, Avalon University School of Medicine, Youngstown, Ohio, USA
*Corresponding Author: Raghavendra Rao MV, Professor, Scientist-Emeritus and Director Central Research Laboratory, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Hyderabad, TS, India.
Received: February 08, 2021; Published: October 29, 2021


Aggression is a safety valve for anger. It is an obnoxious emotion. Aggression is a consequential prophylactic aggravation, in which both the patient and the physician are at risk. Clinical, neurologic, and/or mentally ill persons prone to get aggression. Aggression is an introvert and a negative word for a healthy human being. When it triggers, it changes the behavior of a person from normal to frustrate. Being human, we don’t understand how our brain reacts to emotions like aggression. Our brain is a befuddling organ, many things are going on there, and some of them are mysterious. Sometimes we think aggression is adaptive, helping people and animals guard their homes against intruders and protect their children from threats. Still, these aggression problems arise when taken too far, which escalates abnormally and becomes violent. We are daily facing many things, but all have different reactions for the same things, some react normally while others react aggressively for the same things, its shows the brain has a mystical response for the person. There is considerable evidence that the limbic-dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal network facilitates the activation and inhibition of aggressive behaviour.

Keywords: Aggression; Limbic-Dorsolateral Prefrontal; Orbitofrontal; Serotonin; Epinephrine; Testosterone; Altruistic Aggression; Displaced Aggression; Micro Aggression; Passive-Aggression; Relational Aggression; Weaning Aggression


  1. Van Kampen HS. "The principle of consistency and the cause and function of behaviour”. Behavioural Processes 159 (2019): 42-54.
  2. Lindenfors P and Tullberg BS. “Evolutionary Aspects of Aggression: The Importance of Sexual Selection”. Advances in Genetics 75 (2011): 7-22.
  3. Eagly Alice H and Steffen Valerie J. "Gender and aggressive behaviour: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature". Psychological Bulletin3 (1986): 309-303.
  4. Tank AW and Lee Wong D. “Peripheral and central effects of circulating catecholamines”. Comprehensive Physiology1 (2015): 1-15.
  5. Albert PR., et al. “Serotonin-prefrontal cortical circuitry in anxiety and depression phenotypes: pivotal role of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor expression”. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 8 (2014): 199.
  6. Schlienger RG and Meier CR. "Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on platelet activation: can they prevent acute myocardial infarction?". American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions3 (2003): 149-162.
  7. Nyth AL and Gottfries CG. “The clinical efficacy of citalopram in treatment of emotional disturbances in dementia disorders. A Nordic multicentre study”. British Journal of Psychiatry 157 (1990): 894-901.
  8. Durrant Russil. "Collective violence: An evolutionary perspective". Aggression and Violent Behavior 5 (2011): 428-436.
  9. Hair WM., et al. “A new male contraceptive pill/patch combination: oral desogestrel and transdermal testosterone in suppression of spermatogenesis in men”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 5201 (2001): 5209.
  10. Yearbook of the International Law Commission 2 (1996): 50.
  11. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, adopted on 17 July 1998, A/CONF. 183/9, art 5 (1998).
  12. Fmla Act of the United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, done on 17 July 1998, A/CONF.183/10, annex L resolution F.
  13. 5/Rev.l, par. 16.
  14. Phelps EA., et al. “Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation”. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience5 (2000): 729-738.
  15. Davidson RJ., et al. “Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience”. Psychological Bulletin6 (2000): 890-909.
  16. "Understanding the risks of performance-enhancing drugs". Mayo Clinic (2019).
  17. Mooradian AD., et al. “Biological actions of androgens". Endocrine Reviews1 (1987): 1-28.
  18. Bassil N., et al. “The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review". Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management3 (2009): 427-448.
  19. Tuck SP and Francis RM. "Testosterone, bone and osteoporosis". Advances in the Management of Testosterone Deficiency”. Frontiers of Hormone Research 37 (2009): 123-132.
  20. Luetjens CM and Weinbauer GF. "Chapter 2: Testosterone: Biosynthesis, transport, metabolism and (non-genomic) actions". In Nieschlag E, Behre HM, Nieschlag S (editions.). Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution (4th edition.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2012): 15-32.
  21. Torjesen PA and Sandnes L. "Serum testosterone in women as measured by an automated immunoassay and aRIA". Clinical Chemistry3 (2004): 678.
  22. Southren AL., et al. “Mean plasma concentration, metabolic clearance and basal plasma production rates of testosterone in normal young men and women using a constant infusion procedure: effect of time of day and plasma concentration on the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism5 (1967): 686-694.
  23. Southern AL., et al. “Plasma production rates of testosterone in normal adult men and women and in patients with the syndrome of feminizing testes”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism11 (1965): 1441-1450.
  24. Room R., et al. “Alcohol and public health”. The Lancet9458 (2005): 519-530.
  25. Peterson JB., et al. “Acute alcohol intoxication and cognitive functioning”. Journal of Studies on Alcohol2 (1990): 114-122.
  26. Graham K. “Social drinking and aggression”. In Neurobiology of Aggression (2003): 253-274.
  27. Humana Press Totowa NJ., et al. “Alcohol and sexual assault”. Alcohol Research and Health1 (2001): 43.
  28. Testa M., et al. “The role of women's alcohol consumption in evaluation of vulnerability to sexual aggression”. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology2 (2000): 185.
  29. Hunt GP and Laidler KJ. “Alcohol and violence in the lives of gang members”. Alcohol Research and Health1 (2001): 66.
  30. Trygvesson K. “The ambiguous excuse: attributing violence to intoxication-Young's Swedes about the excuse value of alcohol”. Contemporary Drug Problems 31 (2004): 231-261.
  31. Widom CS., et al. “Alcohol abuse in abused and neglected children followed-up: are they at increased risk?” Journal of Studies on Alcohol2 (1995): 207-217.
  32. Wingood GM., et al. “Adverse consequences of intimate partner abuse among women in non-urban domestic violence shelters”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine4 (2000): 270-275.
  33. Kelly SJ., et al. “Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on social behavior in humans and other species”. Neurotoxicology and Teratology2 (2000): 143-149.
  34. Graham K. “Theories of intoxicated aggression”. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences du Comportement2 (1980): 141.
  35. Giancola PR., et al. “Men and women, alcohol and aggression”. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology3 (2009): 154.
  36. Arseneault L., et al. “Mental disorders and violence in a total birth cohort: results from the Dunedin Study”. Archives of General Psychiatry10 (2000): 979-986.
  37. Collins JJ and Schlenger WE. “Acute and chronic effects of alcohol use on violence”. Journal of Studies on Alcohol6 (1988): 516-521.
  38. Wiley JA and Weisner C. “Drinking in violent and nonviolent events leading to arrest: evidence from a survey of arrestees”. Journal of Criminal Justice5 (1995): 461-476.
  39. Chermack ST and Blow FC. “Violence among individuals in substance abuse treatment: the role of alcohol and cocaine consumption”. Drug and Alcohol Dependence1 (2002): 29-37.
  40. Fals-Stewart W. “The occurrence of partner physical aggression on days of alcohol consumption: a longitudinal diary study”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology1 (2003): 41.
  41. Bushman BJ and Cooper HM. “Effects of alcohol on human aggression: An intergrative research review”. Psychological Bulletin3 (1990): 341.
  42. Attwood AS and Munafò MR. “Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces: implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression”. Journal of Psychopharmacology 8 (2014): 719-732.
  43. Abroms BD., et al. “Alcohol-induced impairment of behavioral control: effects on the alteration and suppression of prepotent responses”. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 5 (2003): 687-695.
  44. Field M., et al. “Acute alcohol effects on inhibitory control and implicit cognition: implications for loss of control over drinking”. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 8 (2010): 1346-1352.
  45. Sayette MA. “An appraisal-disruption model of alcohol's effects on stress responses in social drinkers”. Psychological Bulletin 3 (1993): 459.
  46. Pernanen K. “Alcohol in human violence”. Guilford Press (1991).
  47. Steele CM and Southwick L. “Alcohol and social behavior: I. The psychology of drunken excess”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology1 (1985): 18.
  48. Attwood AS., et al. “Effects of alcohol consumption and alcohol expectancy on the categorisation of perceptual cues of emotional expression”. Psychopharmacology 2 (2009): 327-334.
  49. Giancola PR., et al. “The effects of alcohol and provocation on aggressive behavior in men and women”. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 1 (2002): 64-73.
  50. Hart S. “The Impact of Attachment (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology)”. WW Norton and Company (2010).
  51. Attwood AS and Munafò MR. “Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces: implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression”. Journal of Psychopharmacology 8 (2014): 719-732.
  52. Miller CA., et al. “Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity”. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 6 (2009): 445.
  53. Eckhardt CI and Crane C. “Effects of alcohol intoxication and aggressivity on aggressive verbalizations during anger arousal”. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression 4 (2008): 428-436.
  54. Tremblay PF., et al. “Severity of physical aggression reported by university students: A test of the interaction between trait aggression and alcohol consumption”. Personality and Individual Differences1 (2008): 3-9.
  55. Adeodato VG., et al. “Quality of life and depression in women abused by their partners”. Revista de Saude Publica1 (2005): 108-113.
  56. Fergusson DM and Lynskey MT. “Physical punishment/maltreatment during childhood and adjustment in young adulthood”. Child Abuse and Neglect7 (1997): 617-630.
  57. Baker CK., et al. “Violence and PTSD in Mexico”. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology7 (2005): 519-528.
  58. Kernic MA., et al. “Behavioral problems among children whose mothers are abused by an intimate partner”. Child Abuse and Neglect11 (2003): 1231-1246.
  59. Trocki KF and Caetano R. “Exposure to family violence and temperament factors as predictors of adult psychopathology and substance use outcomes”. Journal of Addictions Nursing4 (2003): 183-192.
  60. Kennedy MP. “Violence in emergency departments: under‐reported, unconstrained, and unconscionable”. Medical Journal of Australia7 (2005): 362-365.
  61. Charan SH and Reddy CP. “Genital self mutilation in alcohol withdrawal state complicated with delirium”. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 33 (2011): 188-190.
  62. Evren C., et al. “Self-mutilative behaviors in male substance dependent inpatients and relationship with anger and aggression: mediator effect of childhood trauma”. Comprehensive Psychiatry 53 (2012): 252-258.
  63. Evren C., et al. “Self-mutilation among male patients with alcohol dependency: the role of dissociation”. Comprehensive Psychiatry 49 (2008): 489-495.
  64. Ciaranello RD., et al. “The use of 5 Hydroxy tryptophan in a child with Lesch - Nyham disease”. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 7 (1976): 127-133.
  65. Dolan M., et al. “Relationship between 5-HT function and Impulsivity and aggression in male offenders with personality disorder”. British Journal of Psychiatry 178 (2001): 352-359.
  66. Maclean C and Robertson BM. “Self-enucleation and psychosis”. Archives Of General Psychiatry 33 (1976): 242-249.
Citation: Raghavendra Rao MV., et al. “Is Brain Aggression a Mystery?”. EC Neurology 13.11 (2021): 11-20.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 15, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.