Review Article
Volume 13 Issue 5 - 2021
Brain Microenvironmental Changes Associated with the COVID-19 May Act as a New Medical Hypothesis to Explain the pathogenicity of the COVID-19
Ahed J Alkhatib1,2*
11Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
2Department of Medicine and Critical Care, Department of Philosophy, Academician Secretary of Department of Sociology, International Mariinskaya Academy, Jordan
*Corresponding Author: Ahed J Alkhatib, Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology and Department of Medicine and Critical Care, Department of Philosophy, Academician Secretary of Department of Sociology, International Mariinskaya Academy, Jordan.
Received: April 04, 2021; Published: April 22, 2021




Abstract

COVID-19 has become the most important medical news at global level. Although it is well -known that its impacts are more likely to occur in the respiratory system, the appearance of neurological symptoms in patients with COVID-19 raised important questions as if the virus infected human brain or if it is a matter of overstimulation of the infection. Although studies showed controversial findings, autopsy findings of people with COVID-19 have confirmed the existence of the virus in the brain tissue. We have postulated our hypothesis in which the pathogenicity of the virus implied that some microenvironmental and cross-talks exist to facilitate the pathology of COVID-19. Interactions with receptors in the astrocytes such as ACE2, NRP1, and BSG to facilitate the invasion of the virus have been reported. Other biochemical changes in metabolic pathways such as Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis, and carbon oxidation have been reported in relation with pathogenicity of the COVID-19. Taken together, COVID-19 infects brain cells and induce microenvironmental changes by potential cross-talks with various components to facilitate its existence and pathogenicity.

Keywords: COVID-19; Medical Hypothesis; Pathogenicity; Glycolysis; Gluconeogenesis

References

  1. Yang X., et al. “Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study”. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 8 (2020): 475-481.
  2. Kotfis K., et al. “COVID-19: ICU delirium management during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic”. Critical Care 24 (2020): 176.
  3. Mao L., et al. “Neurologic Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China”. JAMA Neurology 77 (2020): 683-690.
  4. Varatharaj A., et al. “Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 in 153 patients: a UK-wide surveillance study”. Lancet Psychiatry 7 (2020): 875-882.
  5. Lu Y., et al. “Cerebral Micro-Structural Changes in COVID-19 Patients - An MRI-based 3-month Follow-up Study”. E Clinical Medicine 25 (2020): 100484.
  6. Zhou F., et al. “Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study”. Lancet 395 (2020): 1054-1062.
  7. De Felice FG., et al. “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the Central Nervous System”. Trends in Neurosciences 43 (2020): 355-357.
  8. Fernanda Crunfli., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 infects brain astrocytes of COVID-19 patients and impairs neuronal viability”. Med Rxiv and bio Rxiv (2020).
  9. Xu J., et al. “Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in the Brain: Potential Role of the Chemokine Mig in Pathogenesis”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 41 (2005): 1089-1096.
  10. Politi LS., et al. “Magnetic Resonance Imaging Alteration of the Brain in a Patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Anosmia”. JAMA Neurology 77 (2020): 1028-1029.
  11. Matschke J., et al. “Neuropathology of patients with COVID-19 in Germany: a post-mortem case series”. Lancet Neurology (2020).
  12. Song E., et al. “Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in human and mouse brain”. Bio Rxiv (2020).
  13. Yang AC., et al. “Broad transcriptional dysregulation of brain and choroid plexus cell types with COVID-19”. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (2020).
  14. Daly JL., et al. “Neuropilin-1 is a host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection”. Science 370 (2020): 861-865.
  15. Liddelow SA., et al. “Neurotoxic reactive astrocytes are induced by activated microglia”. Nature 541 (2017): 481-487.
  16. Yun SP., et al. “Block of A1 astrocyte conversion by microglia is neuroprotective in models of Parkinson’s disease”. Nature Medicine 24 (2018): 931-938.
  17. Moriguchi T., et al. “A first case of meningitis/encephalitis associated with SARS-Coronavirus-2”. The International Journal of Infectious Diseases 94 (2020): 55-58.
  18. Zanin L., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 can induce brain and spine demyelinating lesions”. Acta Neurochirurgica 7 (2020): 1491-1494.
  19. Varatharaj A., et al. “Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 in 153 patients: a UK-wide surveillance study”. Lancet Psychiatry 10 (2020): 875-882.
  20. Fung S and Liu DX. “Human coronavirus: host-pathogen interaction”. Annual Review of Microbiology 73 (2019): 529.
  21. Lim YX., et al. “Human coronaviruses: A review of virus-host interactions”. Diseases 4 (2016): 26.
  22. Bernadette Schurink., et al. “Viral presence and immunopathology in patients with lethalCOVID-19: a prospective autopsy cohort study”. The Lancet Microbe 1 (2020): e290-299.
Citation: Ahed J Alkhatib. “Brain Microenvironmental Changes Associated with the COVID-19 May Act as a New Medical Hypothesis to Explain the pathogenicity of the COVID-19”. EC Neurology 13.5 (2021): 78-81.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 08, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk