Review Article
Volume 13 Issue 4 - 2021
Psychoactive Drugs Like Cannabis -Induce Hypodopaminergic Anhedonia and Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Humans: Putative Induction of Dopamine Homeostasis via Coupling of Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) testing and Precision Pro-dopamine Regulation (KB220)
Kenneth Blum1-6*, Joseph Morgan7, Jean Lud Cadet8, David Baron1, Paul R Carney9, Jag Khalsa10, Rajendra D Badgaiyan11 and Mark S Gold12
1Western University Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA
2Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
3Division of Nutrigenomics, Precision Translational Medicine, LLC., San Antonio, TX, USA
4Division of Nutrigenomics, Genomic Testing Center, Geneus Health, LLC., San Antonio, TX, USA
5Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, VT, USA
6Department of Psychiatry, Wright University Boonshoff School of Medicine, Dayton, OH, USA
7Substance Use Disorders Institute University of Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, USA
8Molecular Neuropsychiatry Research Branch, DHHS/NIH/NIDA Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
9Neuroscience Program, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
10Department of Microbiology, immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA
11Department of Psychiatry, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA
12Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
*Corresponding Author: Kenneth Blum, Graduate College, Western University Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.
Received: February 23, 2021; Published: March 31, 2021




Abstract

Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction and intoxication. The major active ingredient of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and it powerfully stimulates the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. When used in the form of the plant marijuana, because of the many compounds that exist in the plant form they could inhibit the activity of the CB1 receptor thereby reducing many of the effects of THC. While this mechanism seems correct, in our opinion, Vallee., et al. incorrectly suggest that blocking CB1 receptors could open unforeseen approaches to the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. We caution the scientific community that, other CB1 receptor blockers, such as, Rimonabant (SR141718) have been pulled off the market in Europe. In addition, CB1 receptor blockers were rejected by the FDA due to mood changes including suicide ideation. We argue that one issue facing the scientific community, has to do with the increasing legalization of Cannabis products in many states across America. We are in favor of some reform in terms of either decriminalization or restrictive legalization especially in control of legal limits of THC. Like other psychoactive compounds at high doses, it is our hypothesis that chronic use of these drugs including high THC content in its various forms (wax, smoke or vapor) resulting in brain reward dysfunction induces an imbalance of neurotransmission and subsequent hypodopaminergia and lead to aberrant substance and non-substance (behavioral) addictions. It is further proposed that in order to overcome THC and even other psychoactive drugs of abuse induced anhedonia the coupling of genetic risk testing and pro dopamine regulation is warranted.

 

Keywords: Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD); Cannabis sativa; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); Type-1 Cannabinoid (CB1) Receptor

References

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Citation: Kenneth Blum., et al. “Psychoactive Drugs Like Cannabis-Induce Hypodopaminergic Anhedonia and Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Humans: Putative Induction of Dopamine Homeostasis via Coupling of Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) Testing and Precision Pro-dopamine Regulation (KB220)”. EC Neurology 13.4 (2021): 86-92.

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