Mini Review
Volume 13 Issue 3 - 2020
A Review of COVID-19 with Evidence of Neuropsychiatric Complications
Ciro Visone*
Department of Psychology, Northcentral University, United States
*Corresponding Author: Ciro Visone, Department of Psychology, Northcentral University, United States.
Received: January 31, 2021; Published: February 18, 2021




Abstract

COVID-19 has claimed the lives of over 2.1 million people across 224 countries. There have been 98 million conferred cases since Chinese health officials first identified the zoonotic RNA virus. The virology of SARS-COV-2 is a primary reason why an individual’s respiratory system decompensates, affecting cellular processes governed by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Importantly, ACE2 enzymes are abundant throughout the body’s major organs, including lungs, kidneys, cardiovascular system and intestines. Proper ACE2 functioning is important for amino acid transportation and can help regulate blood pressure, gut dysbiosis and pulmonary hypertension, while reducing the risk of heart failure, lung disease and diabetes mellitus. Research suggests an over active inflammatory response resulting in a cytokine storm responsible for severe and fatal effects. This macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) attacks healthy cells and organs in an attempt to rid the body of bacteria, resulting in chronic inflammation akin to other inflammatory disorders. Research now also suggests the vulnerability of the central nervous system. ACE2 enzymes exist most notably in the cortex, brainstem, striatum, and hypothalamus. Recent studies show neurologic and neuropsychiatric susceptibility, with enduring symptoms beyond recovery. A UK study of 125 patients found 62% to present with ischemic stroke, while 31% of patients exhibited altered mental state, personality, behavior and new onset psychosis, with roughly an equal number of patients below and above the age of 60 experiences neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders. A separate study of 402 patients in Milan found 60% to have at least one neuropsychiatric diagnosis 15 days post discharge, despite a reduction in neuroinflammatory markers, suggesting potentially enduring effects on the brain and central nervous system.

Keywords: COVID-19; Neuropsychiatric Complications; Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS); Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2)

References

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Citation: Ciro Visone. “A Review of COVID-19 with Evidence of Neuropsychiatric Complications”. EC Neurology 13.3 (2021): 79-82.

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