Research Article
Volume 13 Issue 3 - 2021
Neurocognitive Decay in Puerto Rican Multiple Sclerosis Cases
Claudia L Ríos- López4, Marcos Devarie-Homedo1, Ángel Chinea-Martinez3, Pedro Ruiz-Medina1, Anwar Abdul-Hadi1 and Karla Narváez-Pérez1,2*
1Surgery Department University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus
2Family Department, Universidad Central del Caribe, Puerto Rico
3Surgery Department, San Juan MS Center, San Juan, Puerto Rico
4Biology Department, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Bayamón, Puerto Rico
*Corresponding Author: Karla Narváez-Pérez, Surgery Department University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus.
Received: January 18, 2021;Published: February 16, 2021




Abstract

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder with onset commonly observed in early and middle adulthood. The neuropathological process includes inflammation and demyelination of neurons in the central nervous system, causing dysfunction in the conduction of these cells. The lesions in the white matter of individuals with MS detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been associated with dysfunction in memory, the total area of the white matter lesions in MS patients are the best predictor of neuropsychological dysfunction.

Objective: To analyze and compare the cognitive decay of a group of Puerto Rican MS patients that has not manifested yet, an impairment in verbal functions, execution and executive functions.

Methods: The EIWA-III was administered to a sample of 100 participants, all meeting the criteria of definitive diagnosis of MS. This study is exploratory and descriptive; all study participants should self-report as Puerto Ricans within the ages of 21 to 64 years old. A comparison will be made of execution of a matched group of the normative sample and the group of adults from 21 to 64 years with MS, belonging to the standardization sample in Puerto Rico. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical calculations. 

Results: These results showed the statistically significant differences for each subscale: Verbal IQ, Performance, Total and indexes EIWA-III, suggesting that the level of intelligence of the MS sample group, 21 to 64 years old, was below average in comparison to the normative group. Survey results reflect significant differences in the scores of the subtests that make up the intelligence scale EIWA-III. In all measures, the group of participants with MS had a lower ratio than the reference group. The comparison of scores on the subtests that measure executive functions was analyzed by the working memory index (WMI). Based on the data obtained, the performance in executive functions EIWA-III was significantly lower in participants with MS compared to the reference groups. The domains that are most often affected are attention, memory, and information processing speed. The results are consistent with the literature reports on cognitive neuropsychology and performance of subjects with MS diseases. 

Conclusion: This study will help understand the susceptible regions of cognitive dysfunction of Puerto Rican MS patients. This information will help identify the most affected areas of cognition in order to offer the patient better treatment and early cognitive rehabilitation. 

Keywords: Neuropsychology; Neurocognitive; Multiple Sclerosis; Dysfunction; Performance

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Citation: Karla Narváez-Pérez., et al. “Neurocognitive Decay in Puerto Rican Multiple Sclerosis Cases”.EC Neurology 13.3 (2021): 18-28.

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