Review Article
Volume 13 Issue 2 - 2021
Non-Pharmacologic Care and Management of Neuropathy
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, John V Flores3,4, Hilary M Holets3,4, Lawrence U Akabike5, Mark H Chen6, Emmaneulla Olubumni Solomon7, Kevin D Pruitt5, John Hayes Jr9 and Shain Waugh10
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
4Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
5Larrico Enterprises, LLC, USA
6For Your Health, LLC, USA
7Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
8Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
9NeuropathyDR®, USA
10Fettle Path, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: December 28, 2020; Published: Janaury 30, 2021




Abstract

According to the International Association of the Study of Pain (IASP), neuropathic pain is caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system. The lesion may be peripheral, spinal, or supra-spinal and is differentiated from other types of pain due to sensory symptoms caused by a compromised peripheral or central nervous system. Neuropathic pain is further delineated as “evoked pain” or “rest pain”, the latter typically observed in spinal cord injury patients. Neuropathies can be cranial, autonomic, or focal.

The major types and categories of neuropathies include chronic degenerative neuropathy, post-traumatic neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, stroke-related neuropathy, and peripheral neuropathy. Common comorbidities include Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Neuropathic conditions are diagnosed by a patient’s medical history, examination, and when indicated, electromyography (EMG) and the nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test. This research explores non-pharmacologic care and management of specific neuropathies, particularly nutrition, and nutritional supplementation, and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), also known as low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Comparisons are given regarding these modalities and conventional treatments. Although research into the efficacious applications of nutrition, nutritional supplements, and photobiomodulation therapy is in its relative infancy, these modalities seem promising when used alone or, in combination and or as conjunctive therapies with conventional treatments.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; Demyelination; Diabetic Neuropathy; Neuropathic Pain; Nutritional Supplements; Parkinson’s Disease; Vitamins

References

  1. Colloca L., et al. “Neuropathic pain”. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 3 (2017): 17002. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28205574/
  2. Jensen MP., et al. “The impact of neuropathic pain on health-related quality of life: review and implications”. Neurology15 (2007): 1178-1182. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17420400/
  3. Posso I de P., et al. “Epidemiology of neuropathic pain”. Revista Dor Pesquisa 17 (2016): 11-14. https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-00132016000500011
  4. Backonja M-M. “Pathophysiology of Neuropathic Pain”. In: Clinical Diabetes. Humana Press (2008): 339-349. https://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/pain/neuropathic/pathophysiology-neuropathic-pain
  5. Jang JY., et al. “Characteristics of neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury”. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine3 (2014): 327-334. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092172/
  6. Carroll CG and Campbell WW. “Multiple cranial neuropathies”. Seminars in Neurology 1 (2009): 53-65. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19214933/
  7. Garg RK and Karak B. “Multiple cranial neuropathy: a common diagnostic problem”. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 10 (1999): 1003-1007. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10778697/
  8. Dineen J and Freeman R. “Autonomic neuropathy”. Seminars in Neurology 4 (2015): 458-468. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26502768/
  9. Lämmer AB and Schramm A. “Focal neuropathy”. Nervenarzt 10 (2012): 1313-1324. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23015195/
  10. Hobson-Webb LD and Padua L. “Ultrasound of focal neuropathies”. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 2 (2016): 94-102. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27035249/
  11. Daskalov M., et al. “P102 Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy”. lectroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 4 (1996): 302. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3987657/
  12. Dimachkie MM and Barohn RJ. “Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy”. Current Treatment Options in Neurology 3 (2013): 350-366. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Chronic-Inflammatory-Demyelinating-Polyneuropathy-CIDP-Information-Page
  13. Fonseca PRB da., et al. “Post-trauma and postoperative painful neuropathy”. Revista Dor: Pesquisa 17 (2016): 59-62. https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-00132016000500059
  14. Henry JL. “Mechanisms of peripheral nerve injury – what to treat, when to treat”. In: Peripheral Neuropathy. InTech (2014).
  15. Tubbs RS., et al. “Nerves and Nerve Injuries: Vol 2: Pain, Treatment, Injury, Disease and Future Directions”. Academic Press (2015).
  16. Vallianou N., et al. “Alpha-lipoic Acid and diabetic neuropathy”. The Review of Diabetic Studies 4 (2009): 230-236. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2836194/
  17. Sima AAF., et al. “Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: an analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials”. Diabetes Care1 (2005): 89-94. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15616239/
  18. Yorek MA. “Is fish oil a potential treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy?” Current Diabetes Reviews 4 (2018): 339-349. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317078034_Is_Fish_Oil_a_Potential_Treatment_for_Diabetic_Peripheral_Neuropathy
  19. Callaghan BC., et al. “Diabetic neuropathy: clinical manifestations and current treatments”. The Lancet Neurology 6 (2012): 521-534. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4254767/
  20. Younger DS and Bronfin L. “Overview of diabetic neuropathy”. Seminars in Neurology 2 (1996): 107-113.
  21. Treister AK., et al. “Demystifying poststroke pain: From etiology to treatment”. PMR1 (2017): 63-75. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161714/
  22. The therapeutic effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on peripheral neuropathy: A review of the literature”. Naturalmedicinejournal (2020). https://www.naturalmedicinejournal.com/journal/2010-08/therapeutic-effects-acetyl-l-carnitine-peripheral-neuropathy-review-literature
  23. Rosso M., et al. “Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in peripheral nerve regeneration: A systematic review”. Bioengineering 2 (2018): 44. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29890728/
  24. Lodewijckx J., et al. “Photobiomodulation Therapy for the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: An overview”. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery 38.6 (2020): 348-354. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32460667/
  25. Kumar A., et al. “Alzheimer Disease”. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing (2020).
  26. Sadun AA. “The optic neuropathy of Alzheimer’s disease”. Metabolic, Pediatric, and Systemic Ophthalmology 1-3 (1989): 64-68. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2314849/
  27. Balestrino R and Schapira AHV. “Parkinson disease”. European Journal of Neurology 1 (2020): 27-42.
  28. Alexander GE. “Biology of Parkinson’s disease: pathogenesis and pathophysiology of a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder”. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 3 (2004): 259-280. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181806/
  29. Grambalova Z., et al. “Peripheral neuropathy in Parkinson’s disease”. Neuroendocrinology Letters 4 (2015): 363-367. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26454492/
  30. Gilron I., et al. “Neuropathic pain: principles of diagnosis and treatment”. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 4 (2015): 532-545. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25841257/
  31. Gooch CL and Weimer LH. “The electrodiagnosis of neuropathy: basic principles and common pitfalls”. Neurologic Clinics 1 (2017): 1-28. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17324718/
  32. Franques J., et al. “Characteristics of patients with vitamin B12-responsive neuropathy: a case series with systematic repeated electrophysiological assessment”. Neurological Research 6 (2019): 569-576. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30887907/
  33. Wu F., et al. “Vitamin B12 enhances nerve repair and improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury by inhibiting ER stress-induced neuron injury”. Frontiers in Pharmacology 10 (2019): 406. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31105562/
  34. Zhu X., et al. “Curcumin alleviates neuropathic pain by inhibiting p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase activity-regulated expression of BDNF and cox-2 in a rat model”. PLoS One3 (2014): e91303. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figures?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0091303
  35. Hewlings SJ and Kalman DS. “Curcumin: A review of its effects on human health”. Foods10 (2017). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664031/
  36. Dadhania VP., et al. “Nutraceuticals against neurodegeneration: A mechanistic insight”. Current Neuropharmacology 6 (2016): 627-640. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26725888/
  37. Martins DO., et al. “Neuropeptide expression and morphometric differences in crushed alveolar inferior nerve of rats: Effects of photobiomodulation”. Lasers in Medical Science 4 (2017): 833-840. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10103-017-2181-2
  38. Bansal V., et al. “Diabetic neuropathy”. Postgraduate Medical Journal 964 (2006): 95-100. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16461471/
  39. Busko M. “Evidence scant on nutraceuticals for neuropathy in diabetes”. Medscape (2016). https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/871621
  40. Houreld N. “Healing effects of photobiomodulation on diabetic wounds”. Applied Science 23 (2019): 5114. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/23/5114
  41. Murnion BP. “Neuropathic pain: current definition and review of drug treatment”. Australian Prescriber 3 (2018): 60-63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003018/
  42. Guastella V., et al. “Traitements non médicamenteux de la douleur”.
  43. Gibson W., et al. “Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Libr. 9 (217): CD011976. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28905362/
Citation: Kerna NA, Flores JV, Holets HM, Akabike LU, Chen MH, Solomon EO, Pruitt KD, Hayes Jr J, Waugh S. “Non-Pharmacologic Care and Management of Neuropathy”. EC Neurology 13.2 (2021): 67-76.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 09, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk